«Сөю» битенең юрамалары арасында аерма

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[[File:DickseeRomeoandJuliet.jpg|thumb|upright|[[:en:Romeo and Juliet|Ромео һәм Джульетта (ингл.)]] гашыйкларның [[:en:Frank Bernard Dicksee|Франк Дикси (ингл.)]] тарафыннан [[сурәт]]ләнүе]]
[[Image:Columpio Veracruz 059.jpg|thumb|right|Кардәшләрнең сөюе (борыңгы [[ацтеклар]] [[мәдәният]]е, 250–900 еллар). [[Мексика]]ның [[Веракруз]] штатындагы [[Ксалара]] шәһәрдәге [[:en:Museo de Antropología de Xalapa|Антропология музее (ингл.)]]]]
[[File:Sri Lankan woman and child.jpg|thumb|[[Әби]] белән [[онык]], [[Шри-Ланка]]]]
Көчле [[шәфкать]] һәм шәхси [[attachment (psychology)|бәйләнешне]] билгеләүче [[хис]]не '''сөю''' дип атыйлар.<ref name="oxford">''Oxford Illustrated American Dictionary'' (1998) + ''Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary'' (2000)</ref>
<!--Love is also said to be a [[virtue]] representing all of human [[kindness]], [[compassion]], and affection —"the unselfish loyal and benevolent concern for the good of another".<ref>[http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/love Merriam Webster Dictionary]</ref> Love may describe compassionate and affectionate actions towards other humans, one's self or animals.<ref name="Fromm, Erich 1956">Fromm, Erich; "The Art of Loving", Harper Perennial (1956), Original English Version, ISBN 978-0-06-095828-2</ref>
Сөюне куркынычлыкларга каршы тора алу һәм биологик төрнең дәвамын булдыру өчен кешеләрне бергә тотучы функциясен үтәүче исән калу инстинктның бер өлеше дип күреп була. <ref name="Fisher">Helen Fisher. ''Why we love: the nature and chemistry of romantic love''. 2004.</ref>
In English, love refers to a variety of different feelings, states, and attitudes, ranging from pleasure ("I loved that meal") to [[interpersonal attraction]] ("I love my partner"). "Love" may refer specifically to the passionate desire and intimacy of [[romance (love)|romantic love]], to the sexual love of [[eros (concept)|eros]], to the emotional closeness of [[familial love|familial]] love, to the [[platonic love]] that defines [[friendship]],<ref name="PlatonicSchool">{{cite book |last=Kristeller |first=Paul Oskar |title=Renaissance Thought and the Arts: Collected Essays |publisher=Princeton University |year=1980 |isbn=0-691-02010-8}}</ref> or to the profound [[Henosis|oneness]] or devotion of [[Religious views on love|religious love]]<ref name="Gita">{{cite book |last= Mascaró |first=Juan |title=The Bhagavad Gita |publisher=Penguin Classics |year=2003 |isbn=0-14-044918-3}} (J. Mascaró, translator)</ref>, or to a concept of '''love''' that encompasses all of those feelings. This diversity of uses and meanings, combined with the complexity of the feelings involved, makes love unusually difficult to consistently define, compared to other emotional states.
Love in its various forms acts as a major facilitator of [[interpersonal relationship]]s and, owing to its central psychological importance, is one of the most common themes in the [[creative arts]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Article On Love|url=http://www.slideshare.net/azharabbas/just-love|accessdate=2011-09-13}}</ref>
Love may be understood as part of the survival instinct, a function to keep human beings together against menaces and to facilitate the continuation of the species.<ref name="Fisher">Helen Fisher. ''Why we love: the nature and chemistry of romantic love''. 2004.</ref>
"Сөю" сүзенең мәгънәләре бик төрле, бер-берсеннән кискен аерыла, контекстка бәйле. Татар телендә бу сүз ташыган төрле мәгънәләрне башка телләрдә төрле сүзләр белән билгеләү дә мөмкин; үрнәк буларак [[:en:Greek words for love|"сөюне" билгеләгән грек сүзләрнең (ингл.)]] күплеген китерергә була. Сөюнең нәрсә икәнен билгеләүгә тәэсир итүче [[:en:Cultural identity|мәдәни аермалар (ингл.)]] уртак билгеләмә бирүне аеруча авыр итә.<ref>{{cite journal
<!--Although the nature or [[essence]] of love is a subject of frequent debate, different aspects of the word can be clarified by determining what ''isn't'' love. As a general expression of positive sentiment (a stronger form of ''like''), love is commonly contrasted with [[hate]] (or neutral [[apathy]]); as a less sexual and more emotionally intimate form of romantic attachment, love is commonly contrasted with [[lust]]; and as an interpersonal relationship with romantic overtones, love is sometimes contrasted with [[friendship]], although the word ''love'' is often applied to close friendships.
[[Image:Columpio Veracruz 059.jpg|thumb|left|Fraternal love (Prehispanic sculpture from 250–900 A.D., of [[Huastec civilization|Huastec]] origin). [[Museo de Antropología de Xalapa|Museum of Anthropology]] in [[Xalapa]], [[Veracruz]], [[Mexico]].]]
When discussed in the abstract, ''love'' usually refers to interpersonal love, an experience felt by a person for another person. Love often involves caring for or identifying with a person or thing (cf. [[vulnerability and care theory of love]]), including oneself (cf. [[narcissism]]). In addition to cross-cultural differences in understanding love, ideas about love have also changed greatly over time. Some historians date modern conceptions of romantic love to courtly Europe during or after [[Middle Ages|the Middle Ages]], although the prior existence of romantic attachments is attested by ancient love poetry.<ref>{{cite web
|title=Ancient Love Poetry}}</ref>
Because of the complex and abstract nature of love, discourse on love is commonly reduced to a [[thought-terminating cliché]], and there are a number of common [[proverb]]s regarding love, from [[Virgil|Virgil's]] "[[Amor Vincit Omnia (Caravaggio)|Love conquers all]]" to [[The Beatles]]' "[[All You Need Is Love]]". [[St. Thomas Aquinas]], following [[Aristotle]], defines love as "to will the good of another."<ref name="newadvent.org">{{cite web|url=http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2026.htm#article4 |title=St. Thomas Aquinas, STh I-II, 26, 4, corp. art |publisher=Newadvent.org |date= |accessdate=2010-10-30}}</ref> [[Bertrand Russell]] describes love as a condition of "absolute value," as opposed to [[relative value (economics)|relative value]].{{citation needed|date=October 2012}} Philosopher [[Gottfried Leibniz]] said that love is "to be delighted by the happiness of another."<ref>{{cite web
|title=Confessio philosophi
|publisher=Wikisource edition
|accessdate=Mar 25, 2009}}</ref> Biologist [[Jeremy Griffith]] defines love as "unconditional selflessness".<ref>http://www.worldtransformation.com/what-is-love/ ''What is love?''. In ''The Book of Real Answers to Everything!'' Griffith, J. 2011. ISBN 9781741290073.</ref>
Love is sometimes referred to as being the "international language", overriding cultural and linguistic divisions.
==Шәхескә таба булмаган сөю==
<!--A person can be said to love an object, principle, or goal if they value it greatly and are deeply committed to it. Similarly, compassionate outreach and volunteer workers' "love" of their cause may sometimes be born not of interpersonal love, but impersonal love coupled with [[altruism]] and strong spiritual or political convictions.<ref name="Fromm, Erich 2000">Fromm, Erich; "The Art of Loving", Harper Perennial (September 5, 2000), Original English Version, ISBN 978-0-06-095828-2</ref> People can also "love" material objects, animals, or activities if they invest themselves in bonding or otherwise identifying with those things. If sexual passion is also involved, this condition is called [[paraphilia]].<ref>{{cite web | last = DiscoveryHealth | first = | title = Paraphilia | url=http://health.discovery.com/centers/sex/sexpedia/paraphilia.html | accessdate = 2007-12-16}}</ref>
==Шәхесләр ара булган сөю==
<!--Interpersonal love refers to love between human beings. It is a more potent sentiment than a simple ''liking'' for another. [[Unrequited love]] refers to those feelings of love that are not reciprocated. Interpersonal love is most closely associated with [[interpersonal relationships]].<ref name="Fromm, Erich 2000"/> Such love might exist between family members, friends, and couples. There are also a number of psychological disorders related to love, such as [[erotomania]].
[[File:Gothaer Liebespaar.jpg|thumb|180px|''Pair of Lovers''. 1480-1485]]
Throughout history, [[philosophy]] and [[religion]] have done the most speculation on the phenomenon of love. In the last century, the science of [[psychology]] has written a great deal on the subject. In recent years, the sciences of [[psychology]], [[anthropology]], [[neuroscience]], and [[biology]] have added to the understanding of the nature and function of love.
People with [[histrionic personality disorder]] and [[narcissism]] may have a limited or minimal capability for experiencing love.<ref>[http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=PB2BVBcyb9oC&pg=PA74&dq=&hl=en&sa=X&ei=aAc0T5aNH-er0QX8s8WvAg&ved=0CEMQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=&f=false Personality Disorders: Recognition and Clinical Management] retrieved 9 February 2012, Jonathan H. Dowson, Adrian T. Grounds, page 74</ref><ref>[http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=OFn_7aBm-5oC&pg=PA89&dq=&hl=en&sa=X&ei=xIVcT8HTDebN0QXykoXLDQ&ved=0CH4Q6AEwDQ#v=onepage&q=&f=false Women and borderline personality disorder: symptoms and stories] page 89, retrieved 10 February 2012</ref><ref>[http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=NSyiH7xM7FQC&oi=fnd&pg=PA257&dq=&ots=fifDbBTb3o&sig=xPh6nNAnxBozgtlwiwm2jrdKFCI#v=onepage&q&f=false Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Personality Disorders: A Clinical Handbook] Narcissistic personality disorder, page 263</ref><ref>[http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=wAU9UCI1V6kC&pg=PA243&dq=&hl=en&sa=X&ei=xIVcT8HTDebN0QXykoXLDQ&ved=0CJYBEOgBMBE#v=onepage&q=&f=false Introduction to Psychology] Ann L. Weber, Joseph Johnson, page 243</ref>{{not in citation|date=November 2012}}
===Биологик нигез===
{{Main|:en:Biological basis of love}}
|volume=Sept. 05}}</ref>
===Психологик нигез===
{{further2|[[:en:Human bonding]]}}
<!--Psychology depicts love as a cognitive and social phenomenon. [[Psychologist]] [[Robert Sternberg]] formulated a [[triangular theory of love]] and argued that love has three different components: intimacy, commitment, and passion. Intimacy is a form in which two people share confidences and various details of their personal lives, and is usually shown in friendships and romantic love affairs. Commitment, on the other hand, is the expectation that the relationship is permanent. The last and most common form of love is sexual attraction and passion. Passionate love is shown in infatuation as well as romantic love. All forms of love are viewed as varying combinations of these three components. Non-love does not include any of these components. Liking only includes intimacy. Infatuated love only includes passion. Empty love only includes commitment. Romantic love includes both intimacy and passion. Companionate love includes intimacy and commitment. Fatuous love includes passion and commitment. Lastly, consummate love includes all three. <ref>Sternberg, R.J. (1986). "A triangular theory of love". Psychological Review 93 (2): 119–135. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.93.2.</ref>American psychologist [[Zick Rubin]] sought to define ''love'' by [[psychometrics]] in the 1970s. His work states that three factors constitute love: attachment, caring, and intimacy.<ref>{{cite journal
|title=Measurement of Romantic Love
|journal=Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
<ref>{{cite book
|title=Liking and Loving: an invitation to social psychology
|location=New York
|publisher=Holt, Rinehart & Winston
[[File:Sri Lankan woman and child.jpg|thumb|Grandmother and grandchild, [[Sri Lanka]]]]
Following developments in electrical theories such as [[Coulomb's law]], which showed that positive and negative charges attract, analogs in human life were developed, such as "opposites attract." Over the last century, research on the nature of human mating has generally found this not to be true when it comes to character and personality—people tend to like people similar to themselves. However, in a few unusual and specific domains, such as [[immune system]]s, it seems that humans prefer others who are unlike themselves (e.g., with an orthogonal immune system), since this will lead to a baby that has the best of both worlds.<ref>{{cite book | last = Berscheid | first = Ellen | authorlink = Ellen S. Berscheid | coauthors = Walster, Elaine, H.| title = Interpersonal Attraction | publisher = Addison-Wesley Publishing Co | year = 1969 | id = CCCN 69-17443 | isbn = 0-201-00560-3 }}</ref> In recent years, various [[human bonding]] theories have been developed, described in terms of attachments, ties, bonds, and affinities.
Some Western authorities disaggregate into two main components, the altruistic and the narcissistic. This view is represented in the works of [[M. Scott Peck|Scott Peck]], whose work in the field of [[applied psychology]] explored the definitions of love and evil. Peck maintains that love is a combination of the "concern for the spiritual growth of another," and simple narcissism.<ref name="peck">{{cite book | title=The Road Less Traveled | isbn=0-671-25067-1 | last=Peck | first=Scott | publisher=Simon & Schuster | year=1978 | page=169}}</ref> In combination, love is an ''activity'', not simply a feeling.
Psychologist [[Erich Fromm]] maintained in his book "[[The art of loving]]" that love is not merely a feeling but is also actions, and that in fact, the "feeling" of love is superficial in comparison to ones commitment to love via a series of loving actions over time.<ref name="Fromm, Erich 2000"/> In this sense, Fromm held that love is ultimately not a feeling at all, but rather is a commitment to, and adherence to, loving actions towards another, ones self, or many others, over a sustained duration.<ref name="Fromm, Erich 2000"/> Fromm also described Love as a conscious choice that in its early stages might originate as an involuntary feeling, but which then later no longer depends on those feelings, but rather depends only on conscious commitment.<ref name="Fromm, Erich 2000"/>
===Эволюцион нигез===
<!--[[Evolutionary psychology]] has attempted to provide various reasons for love as a survival tool. Humans are dependent on parental help for a large portion of their lifespans comparative to other mammals. Love has therefore been seen as a mechanism to promote parental support of children for this extended time period. Another factor may be that [[sexually transmitted disease]]s can cause, among other effects, permanently reduced [[fertility]], injury to the fetus, and increase complications during [[childbirth]]. This would favor monogamous relationships over polygamy.<ref>The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology, edited by David M. Buss, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005. Chapter 14, Commitment, Love, and Mate Retention by Lorne Campbell and Bruce J. Ellis.</ref>
===Фәнни моделләрнең каршылаштырылуы===
<!--Biological models of love tend to see it as a mammalian drive, similar to [[hunger]] or [[thirst]].<ref name="Lewis"/> Psychology sees love as more of a social and cultural phenomenon. There are probably elements of truth in both views. Certainly love is influenced by [[hormone]]s (such as [[oxytocin]]), [[neurotrophins]] (such as [[Nerve Growth Factor|NGF]]), and [[pheromone]]s, and how people think and behave in love is influenced by their conceptions of love. The conventional view in [[biology]] is that there are two major drives in love: [[sexual attraction]] and [[attachment theory|attachment]]. Attachment between adults is presumed to work on the same principles that lead an infant to become attached to its mother. The traditional psychological view sees love as being a combination of [[companionate love]] and passionate love. Passionate love is intense longing, and is often accompanied by [[physiological arousal]] (shortness of breath, rapid heart rate); companionate love is affection and a feeling of intimacy not accompanied by physiological arousal.
==Мәдәни карашлар==
===Борыңгы греклар===
<!--[[Greek language|Greek]] distinguishes [[Greek words for love|several different senses]] in which the word "love" is used. For example, Ancient Greek has the words ''philia'', ''eros'', ''agape'', ''storge'', and ''xenia''. However, with Greek (as with many other languages), it has been historically difficult to separate the meanings of these words totally. At the same time, the Ancient Greek text of the [[Bible]] has examples of the [[verb]] ''agapo'' having the same meaning as ''[[phileo]]''.
''[[Agapē|Agape]]'' ({{lang|grc|ἀγάπη}} ''agápē'') means ''love'' in modern-day Greek. The term ''s'agapo'' means ''I love you'' in Greek. The word ''agapo'' is the verb ''I love''. It generally refers to a "pure," [[ideal type]] of love, rather than the physical attraction suggested by ''eros''. However, there are some examples of ''agape'' used to mean the same as ''eros''. It has also been translated as "love of the soul."
''[[Eros (love)|Eros]]'' ({{lang|grc|ἔρως}} ''érōs'') (from the Greek deity [[Eros]]) is passionate love, with sensual desire and longing. The Greek word ''erota'' means ''in love''. [[Plato]] refined his own definition. Although eros is initially felt for a person, with contemplation it becomes an appreciation of the beauty within that person, or even becomes appreciation of beauty itself. Eros helps the soul recall knowledge of beauty and contributes to an understanding of spiritual truth. Lovers and philosophers are all inspired to seek truth by eros. Some translations list it as "love of the body."
''[[Philia]]'' ({{lang|grc|φιλία}} ''philía''), a dispassionate virtuous love, was a concept addressed and developed by [[Aristotle]].{{Citation needed|date=November 2011}} It includes loyalty to friends, family, and community, and requires virtue, equality, and familiarity. Philia is motivated by practical reasons; one or both of the parties benefit from the relationship. It can also mean "love of the mind."
''[[Storge]]'' ({{lang|grc|στοργή}} ''storgē'') is natural affection, like that felt by parents for offspring.
''[[Xenia (Greek)|Xenia]]'' (ξενία ''xenía''), hospitality, was an extremely important practice in [[Ancient Greece]]. It was an almost ritualized friendship formed between a host and his guest, who could previously have been strangers. The host fed and provided quarters for the guest, who was expected to repay only with gratitude. The importance of this can be seen throughout [[Greek mythology]]—in particular, [[Homer|Homer's]] ''[[Iliad]]'' and ''[[Odyssey]]''.
===Борыңгы римлылар (латинлылар)===
<!--The [[Latin|Latin language]] has several different verbs corresponding to the English word "love." ''[[wikt:amo#Latin|amō]]'' is the basic verb meaning ''I love'', with the infinitive ''[[wikt:amare#Italian|amare]]'' (“to love”) as it still is in [[Italian language|Italian]] today. The Romans used it both in an affectionate sense as well as in a romantic or sexual sense. From this verb come ''amans''—a lover, amator, "professional lover," often with the accessory notion of lechery—and ''amica'', "girlfriend" in the English sense, often as well being applied euphemistically to a prostitute. The corresponding noun is ''amor'' (the significance of this term for the Romans is well illustrated in the fact, that the name of the City, [[Rome]]—in Latin: ''Roma''—can be viewed as an [[anagram]] for ''amor'', which was used as the secret name of the City in wide circles in ancient times),<ref>Thomas Köves-Zulauf, Reden und Schweigen, Munich, 1972.</ref> which is also used in the plural form to indicate love affairs or sexual adventures. This same root also produces ''amicus''—"friend"—and ''amicitia'', "friendship" (often based to mutual advantage, and corresponding sometimes more closely to "indebtedness" or "influence"). Cicero wrote a treatise called ''On Friendship'' (''de Amicitia''), which discusses the notion at some length. Ovid wrote a guide to dating called [[Art of Love|''Ars Amatoria'']] (''The Art of Love''), which addresses, in depth, everything from [[Affair|extramarital affairs]] to overprotective parents.
Latin sometimes uses ''amāre'' where English would simply say ''to like''. This notion, however, is much more generally expressed in Latin by ''placere'' or ''delectāre'', which are used more colloquially, the latter used frequently in the love poetry of [[Catullus]]. ''Diligere'' often has the notion "to be affectionate for," "to esteem," and rarely if ever is used for romantic love. This word would be appropriate to describe the friendship of two men. The corresponding noun ''diligentia'', however, has the meaning of "diligence" or "carefulness," and has little semantic overlap with the verb. ''Observare'' is a synonym for ''diligere''; despite the cognate with English, this verb and its corresponding noun, ''observantia'', often denote "esteem" or "affection." ''[[Charity (virtue)|Caritas]]'' is used in Latin translations of the Christian Bible to mean "charitable love"; this meaning, however, is not found in Classical pagan [[Latin literature|Roman literature]]. As it arises from a conflation with a Greek word, there is no corresponding verb.
===Кытайлылар һәм башка син мәдәниятләре===
<!--[[Image:Love-zh.svg|thumb|upright|"Ai," the traditional [[Chinese character]] for love (愛) consists of a [[heart]] (middle) inside of "accept," "feel," or "perceive," which shows a graceful emotion. It can also be interpreted as a hand offering ones heart to another hand.]]
Two philosophical underpinnings of love exist in the Chinese tradition, one from [[Confucianism]] which emphasized actions and duty while the other came from [[Mohism]] which championed a universal love. A core concept to Confucianism is ''[[Ren (Confucianism)|Ren]]'' ("benevolent love", 仁), which focuses on duty, action and attitude in a relationship rather than love itself. In Confucianism, one displays benevolent love by performing actions such as filial piety from children, kindness from parent, loyalty to the king and so forth.
The concept of ''Ai'' (愛) was developed by the Chinese philosopher [[Mozi]] in the 4th century BC in reaction to Confucianism's benevolent love. Mozi tried to replace what he considered to be the long-entrenched Chinese over-attachment to family and clan structures with the concept of "universal love" (''jiān'ài'', 兼愛). In this, he argued directly against Confucians who believed that it was natural and correct for people to care about different people in different degrees. Mozi, by contrast, believed people in principle should care for all people equally. Mohism stressed that rather than adopting different attitudes towards different people, love should be unconditional and offered to everyone without regard to reciprocation, not just to friends, family and other Confucian relations. Later in [[Chinese Buddhism]], the term ''Ai'' (愛) was adopted to refer to a passionate caring love and was considered a fundamental desire. In Buddhism, ''Ai'' was seen as capable of being either selfish or selfless, the latter being a key element towards enlightenment.
In contemporary Chinese, ''Ai'' (愛) is often used as the equivalent of the Western concept of love. ''Ai'' is used as both a verb (e.g. ''wo ai ni'' 我愛你, or "I love you") and a noun (such as ''aiqing'' 愛情, or "romantic love"). However, due to the influence of Confucian ''Ren'', the phrase ‘Wo ai ni’ (I love you) carries with it a very specific sense of responsibility, commitment and loyalty. Instead of frequently saying "I love you" as in some Western societies, the Chinese are more likely to express feelings of affection in a more casual way. Consequently, "I like you" (''Wo xihuan ni'', 我喜欢你) is a more common way of expressing affection in Chinese; it is more playful and less serious.<ref>JFK Miller, "[http://shanghai.urbanatomy.com/index.php/i-ahearts-shanghai/85-i-love-shanghai/429-why-the-chinese-dont-say-qi-love-youq Why the Chinese Don't Say I Love You]"</ref> This is also true in Japanese (''suki da'', 好きだ). The Chinese are also more likely to say "I love you" in English or other foreign languages than they would in their mother tongue.
<!--[[Rumi]], [[Hafiz Shirazi|Hafiz]] and [[Saadi (poet)|Sa'di]] are icons of the passion and love that the [[Culture of Iran|Persian culture]] and language present. The Persian word for love is ''eshgh'' {{Citation needed|date=January 2012}}, derived from the Arabic ''ishq'', however is considered by most to be too stalwart a term for interpersonal love and is more commonly substituted for 'doost dashtan' ('liking'){{Citation needed|date=January 2012}}. In the Persian culture, everything is encompassed by love and all is for love, starting from loving friends and family, husbands and wives, and eventually reaching the divine love that is the ultimate goal in life {{cn|date=October 2012}}. Over seven centuries ago, Sa'di wrote:
::::''The children of Adam are limbs of one body''
::::''Having been created of one essence.''
::::''When the calamity of time afflicts one limb''
::::''The other limbs cannot remain at rest.''
::::''If you have no sympathy for the troubles of others''
::::''You are not worthy to be called by the name of "man."''
<!--[[Image:Ohatu and tokubei.jpg|right|thumb|Ohatsu and Tokubei, characters of ''[[Sonezaki Shinjū]]'']]
In [[Japanese Buddhism]], ''ai'' (愛) is passionate caring love, and a fundamental desire. It can develop towards either selfishness or selflessness and enlightenment. ''[[Amae]]'' (甘え), a Japanese word meaning "indulgent dependence," is part of the child-rearing [[culture of Japan]]. Japanese mothers are expected to hug and indulge their children, and children are expected to reward their mothers by clinging and serving. Some [[sociologist]]s have suggested that Japanese social interactions in later life are modeled on the mother-child amae.
===Төрекләр (Шаманизм һәм Ислам)===
<!--In [[Turkish language|Turkish]], the word "love" comes up with several meanings. A person can love a god, a person, parents, or family. But that person can "love" just one special person, which they call the word "aşk." ''[[Ishq|Aşk]]'' is a feeling for ''to love,'' or being "in love" (Aşık), as it still is in Turkish today. The Turks used this word just for their loves in a romantic or sexual sense. If a Turk says that he is in love (Aşık) with somebody, it is not a love that a person can feel for his or her parents; it is just for one person, and it indicates a huge infatuation. The word is also common for [[Turkic languages]], such as [[Azerbaijani language|Azerbaijani]] (eşq) and [[Kazakh language|Kazakh]] (ғашық).
==[[Дин]]и карашлар==
{{main|:en:Religious views on love}}
===Ибраһими диннәр===
<!--[[Image:Ahava.jpg|thumb|[[Robert Indiana]]'s 1977 [[Love (sculpture)|''Love'' sculpture]] spelling ''ahava''.]]-->
<!--The Christian understanding is that love comes from God. The love of man and woman—''eros'' in Greek—and the unselfish love of others (''agape''), are often contrasted as "ascending" and "descending" love, respectively, but are ultimately the same thing.<ref name="vatican1">{{cite web
|author=Pope Benedict XVI
|title=papal encyclical, Deus Caritas Est.}}</ref>
There are several Greek words for "love" that are regularly referred to in Christian circles.
* ''[[Agape]]'': In the [[New Testament]], ''agapē'' is charitable, selfless, altruistic, and unconditional. It is parental love, seen as creating goodness in the world; it is the way [[God]] is seen to love humanity, and it is seen as the kind of love that Christians aspire to have for one another.
* ''[[Phileo]]'': Also used in the New Testament, ''phileo'' is a human response to something that is found to be delightful. Also known as "brotherly love."
* Two other [[#Ancient Greek|words for love in the Greek language]], ''[[Eros (love)|eros]]'' (sexual love) and ''[[storge]]'' (child-to-parent love), were never used in the New Testament.
[[Christianity|Christians]] believe that to ''Love God with all your heart, mind, and strength'' and ''Love your [[neighbourhood|neighbor]] as yourself'' are the two most important things in life (the [[Great Commandment|greatest commandment]] of the Jewish [[Torah]], according to [[Jesus]]; cf. [[Gospel of Mark]] chapter 12, verses 28–34). [[Augustine of Hippo|Saint Augustine]] summarized this when he wrote "''Love God, and do as thou wilt''."
[[Image:baglione.jpg|thumb|left|upright|''Sacred Love Versus Profane Love'' (1602–03) by [[Giovanni Baglione]]. Intended as an attack on his hated enemy the artist [[Caravaggio]], it shows a boy (hinting at Caravaggio's homosexuality) on one side, a devil with Caravaggio's face on the other, and between an angel representing pure, meaning non-erotic, love.]]
[[The Apostle Paul]] glorified love as the most important virtue of all. Describing love in the famous poem in [[First Epistle to the Corinthians|1 Corinthians]], he wrote, "Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, and always perseveres." ([[1 Corinthians|1 Cor.]] 13:4–7, [[NIV]])
{{Close Relationships}}
[[John the Apostle|The Apostle John]] wrote, ''"For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life. For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but to save the world through him."'' ([[Gospel of John|John]] 3:16–17, NIV) John also wrote, ''"Dear friends, let us love one another for love comes from God. Everyone who loves has been born of God and knows God. Whoever does not love does not know God, because God is love."'' ([[1 John]] 4:7–8, NIV)
Saint Augustine says that one must be able to decipher the difference between love and lust. Lust, according to Saint Augustine, is an overindulgence, but to love and be loved is what he has sought for his entire life. He even says, ''“I was in love with love.”'' Finally, he does fall in love and is loved back, by God. Saint Augustine says the only one who can love you truly and fully is God, because love with a human only allows for flaws such as ''“jealousy, suspicion, fear, anger, and contention.”'' According to Saint Augustine, to love God is ''“to attain the peace which is yours.”'' (Saint Augustine's Confessions)
Christian [[Theology|theologians]] see God as the source of love, which is mirrored in humans and their own loving relationships. Influential Christian theologian [[C.S. Lewis]] wrote a book called ''[[The Four Loves]]''. [[Benedict XVI]] wrote his first [[encyclical]] on "[[Deus caritas est|God is love]]". He said that a human being, created in the image of God, who is love, is able to practice love; to give himself to God and others ([[agape]]) and by receiving and experiencing God's love in contemplation (eros). This life of love, according to him, is the life of the saints such as [[Mother Teresa|Teresa of Calcutta]] and the [[Blessed Virgin Mary]] and is the direction Christians take when they believe that God loves them.<ref name="vatican1"/>
In Christianity the practical definition of love is best summarised by [[St. Thomas Aquinas]], who defined love as "to will the good of another," or to desire for another to succeed.<ref name="newadvent.org"/> This is the explanation of the Christian need to love others, including their enemies. As Thomas Aquinas explains, Christian love is motivated by the need to see others succeed in life, to be good people.
<!--In [[Hebrew language|Hebrew]], ''Ahava'' is the most commonly used term for both interpersonal love and love between God and God's creations. [[Chesed]], often translated as [[loving-kindness]], is used to describe many forms of love between human beings.
The commandment to love other people is given in the [[Torah]], which states, "Love your neighbor like yourself" ([[Leviticus]] 19:18). The Torah's commandment to love [[God]] "with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might" ([[Deuteronomy]] 6:5) is taken by the [[Mishnah]] (a central text of the Jewish [[oral law]]) to refer to good deeds, willingness to sacrifice one's life rather than commit certain serious transgressions, willingness to sacrifice all of one's possessions, and being grateful to the Lord despite adversity (tractate Berachoth 9:5). [[Rabbinic literature]] differs as to how this love can be developed, e.g., by contemplating divine deeds or witnessing the marvels of nature. As for love between marital partners, this is deemed an essential ingredient to life: "See life with the wife you love" ([[Ecclesiastes]] 9:9). The biblical book [[Song of Solomon]] is considered a romantically phrased metaphor of love between [[God]] and his people, but in its plain reading, reads like a love song. The 20th-century [[Rabbi]] [[Eliyahu Eliezer Dessler]] is frequently quoted as defining love from the Jewish point of view as "giving without expecting to take" (from his ''Michtav me-Eliyahu'', Vol.&nbsp;1).
<!--Love encompasses the Islamic view of life as universal brotherhood that applies to all who hold faith. Amongst the 99 names of God ([[Allah]]), there is the name ''Al-Wadud'', or "the Loving One," which is found in Surah {{Quran-usc|11|90|q=}} as well as Surah {{Quran-usc|85|14|q=}}. God is also referenced at the beginning of every chapter in the Qur'an as ''Ar-Rahman'' and ''Ar-Rahim'', or the "Most Compassionate" and the "Most Merciful", indicating that nobody is more loving, compassionate and benevolent than God. The Qur'an refers to God as being "full of loving kindness."
The Qur'an exhorts Muslim believers to treat all people, those who have not persecuted them, with ''birr'' or "deep kindness" as stated in Surah {{Quran-usc|6|8-9|q=}}. ''Birr'' is also used by the Qur'an in describing the love and kindness that children must show to their parents.
''[[Ishq]]'', or divine love, is the emphasis of [[Sufism]] in the Islamic tradition. Practitioners of Sufism believe that love is a projection of the essence of God to the universe. God desires to recognize beauty, and as if one looks at a mirror to see oneself, God "looks" at himself within the dynamics of nature. Since everything is a reflection of God, the school of Sufism practices to see the beauty inside the apparently ugly. Sufism is often referred to as the religion of love.{{Citation needed|date=April 2011}} God in Sufism is referred to in three main terms, which are the Lover, Loved, and Beloved, with the last of these terms being often seen in Sufi poetry. A common viewpoint of Sufism is that through love, humankind can get back to its inherent purity and grace. The saints of Sufism are infamous for being "drunk" due to their love of God; hence, the constant reference to wine in Sufi poetry and music.<ref>{{cite web|title=Article On Love|url=http://www.sccs.swarthmore.edu/users/08/ajb/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Love.html|accessdate=13 September 2011}}</ref>
===Көнчыгыш диннәр===
<!--In [[Buddhism]], ''[[Kāma]]'' is sensuous, sexual love. It is an obstacle on the path to [[enlightenment (Buddhism)|enlightenment]], since it is selfish. ''[[Karuṇā]]'' is compassion and mercy, which reduces the suffering of others. It is complementary to wisdom and is necessary for enlightenment. ''Adveṣa'' and ''[[mettā]]'' are benevolent love. This love is unconditional and requires considerable self-acceptance. This is quite different from ordinary love, which is usually about attachment and sex and which rarely occurs without self-interest. Instead, in Buddhism it refers to detachment and unselfish interest in others' welfare.
The [[Bodhisattva]] ideal in Mahayana Buddhism involves the complete renunciation of oneself in order to take on the burden of a suffering world. The strongest motivation one has in order to take the path of the Bodhisattva is the idea of salvation within unselfish, altruistic love for all sentient beings.
====[[Һинд дине]]====
<!--[[File:Kama Rati.jpg|thumb|upright|Kama (left) with Rati on a temple wall of [[Chennakesava Temple]], [[Belur]]]]
In [[Hinduism]], ''[[kāma]]'' is pleasurable, sexual love, personified by the god [[Kamadeva]]. For many Hindu schools, it is the third end (''[[Kama#Kama_in_Hinduism|Kama]]'') in life. Kamadeva is often pictured holding a bow of [[sugar cane]] and an arrow of flowers; he may ride upon a great parrot. He is usually accompanied by his consort [[Rati]] and his companion Vasanta, lord of the spring season. Stone images of Kamadeva and Rati can be seen on the door of the Chennakeshava temple at Belur, in [[Karnataka]], [[India]]. ''Maara'' is another name for ''kāma''.
In contrast to ''kāma'', ''[[prem]]a''{{spaced ndash}}or ''prem''{{spaced ndash}}refers to elevated love. ''[[Karuṇā|Karuna]]'' is compassion and mercy, which impels one to help reduce the suffering of others. ''Bhakti'' is a [[Sanskrit]] term, meaning "loving devotion to the supreme God." A person who practices ''bhakti'' is called a ''bhakta''. Hindu writers, theologians, and philosophers have distinguished nine forms of ''[[bhakti]]'', which can be found in the [[Bhagavata Purana]] and works by [[Tulsidas]]. The philosophical work ''[[Narada Bhakti Sutra]]s'', written by an unknown author (presumed to be [[Narada]]), distinguishes eleven forms of love.
In certain Vaishnava sects within Hinduism, attaining unaldulterated, unconditional and incessant love for Godhead is considered the foremost goal of life. Gaudiya Vaishnavas who worship Krishna as the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the cause of all causes consider Love for Godhead (Prema) to act in two ways: sambhoga and vipralambha (union and separation) — two opposites .<ref name="Krishna Prema">{{cite web
|url=https://www.facebook.com/note.php?note_id=10150168632408280|author=Gour Govinda Swami|title=Wonderful Characteristic of Krishna Prema, Gour Govinda Swami.}}</ref>
In the condition of separation, there is an acute yearning for being with the beloved and in the condition of union there is supreme happiness and nectarean. Gaudiya Vaishnavas consider that Krishna-prema (Love for Godhead) is not fire but that it still burns away one's material desires. They consider that Kṛṣṇa-prema is not a weapon, but it still pierces the heart. It is not water, but it washes away everything — one's pride, religious rules, and one's shyness. Krishna-prema is considered to make one drown in the ocean of transcendental ecstasy and pleasure. The love of Radha, a cowherd girl, for Krishna is often cited as the supreme example of love for Godhead by Gaudiya Vaishnavas. Radha is considered to be the internal potency of Krishna, and is the supreme lover of Godhead. Her example of love is considered to be beyond the understanding of material realm as it surpasses any form of selfish love or lust that is visibile in the material world. The reciprocal love between Radha (the supreme lover) and Krishna (God as the Supremely Loved) is the subject of many poetic compositions in India such as the [[Gita Govinda]] and Hari Bhakti Shuddhodhaya.
In the Bhakti tradition within Hinduism, it is believed that execution of devotional service to God leads to the development of Love for God (taiche bhakti-phale krsne prema upajaya), and as love for God increases in the heart, the more one becomes free from material contamination (krishna-prema asvada haile, bhava nasa paya). Being perfectly in love with God or Krishna makes one perfectly free from material contamination. and this is the ultimate way of salvation or liberation. In this tradition, salvation or liberation is considered inferior to love, and just an incidental by-product. Being absorbed in Love for God is considered to be the perfection of life.<ref name="Perfect Love">{{cite web |url=http://www.prabhupadanugas.eu/?p=23368 |author=A C Bhaktivedanta Swami|title=Being Perfectly in Love}}</ref>
== Сәяси карашлар ==
=== Ирекле сөю ===
{{Main|:en:Free love}}
<!--The term '''free love''' has been used <ref>[http://library.syr.edu/digital/collections/h/Hand-bookOfTheOneidaCommunity/ The Handbook] of the [[Oneida Community]] claims to have coined the term around 1850, and laments that its use was appropriated by [[socialist]]s to attack marriage, an institution that they felt protected women and children from abandonment</ref> to describe a [[social movement]] that rejects [[marriage]], which is seen as a form of social bondage. The Free Love movement’s initial goal was to separate the state from sexual matters such as marriage, [[birth control]], and [[adultery]]. It claimed that such issues were the concern of the people involved, and no one else.<ref>McElroy, Wendy. "The Free Love Movement and Radical Individualism." Libertarian Enterprise .19 (1996): 1.</ref>
Much of the free-love tradition is an offshoot of [[anarchism]], and reflects a [[Civil libertarianism|civil libertarian]] philosophy that seeks [[freedom (political)|freedom]] from [[State (polity)|state]] regulation and [[Christian Church|church]] interference in [[personal relationship]]s. According to this concept, the [[free union]]s of [[adult]]s are legitimate relations which should be respected by all third parties whether they are emotional or sexual relations. In addition, some free-love writing has argued that both men and women have the right to sexual pleasure. In the [[Victorian era]], this was a radical notion. Later, a new theme developed, linking free love with radical social change, and depicting it as a [[wikt:harbinger|harbinger]] of a new [[Anti-authoritarianism|anti-authoritarian]], anti-repressive sensibility.<ref>[http://www.peacenews.info/webextras/article.php?id=33 Dan Jakopovich, ''Chains of Marriage'', Peace News]</ref>
Many people in the early 19th century believed that marriage was an important aspect of life to "fulfill earthly human happiness." Middle-class Americans wanted the home to be a place of stability in an uncertain world. This mentality created a vision on strongly defined gender roles, which led to the advancement of the free love movement.<ref name="Spurlock, John C 1988">Spurlock, John C. Free Love Marriage and Middle-Class Radicalism in America. New York, NY: New York UP, 1988.</ref>
While the phrase ''free love'' is often associated with [[promiscuity]] in the popular imagination, especially in reference to the [[counterculture of the 1960s]] and 1970s, historically the free-love movement has not advocated multiple sexual partners or short-term sexual relationships. Rather, it has argued that love relations that are freely entered into should not be regulated by law.
The term "'''sex radical'''" is also used interchangeably with the term "free lover", and was the preferred term by advocates because of the negative connotations of "free love".{{Citation needed|date=February 2010}} By whatever name, advocates had two strong beliefs: opposition to the idea of forceful sexual activity in a relationship and advocacy for a woman to use her body in any way that she pleases.<ref name="Passet, Joanne E 2003">Passet, Joanne E. Sex Radicals and the Quest for Women's Equality. Chicago,IL: U of Illinois P, 2003.</ref> These are also beliefs of [[Feminism]].
Laws of particular concern to free love movements have included those that prevent an unmarried couple from living together, and those that regulate [[adultery]] and [[divorce]], as well as [[age of consent]], [[birth control]], [[homosexuality]], [[abortion]], and sometimes [[prostitution]]; although not all free love advocates agree on these issues. The abrogation of individual rights in marriage is also a concern—for example, some jurisdictions do not recognize [[spousal rape]] or treat it less seriously than non-spousal rape. Free-love movements since the 19th century have also defended the right to publicly discuss sexuality and have battled [[obscenity]] laws.
== Фәлсәфи карашлар ==
{{Main|:en:Philosophy of love}}
<!--Philosophy of love is the field of [[social philosophy]] and [[ethics]] which attempts to [[explanation|explain]] the nature of [[love]]. The philosophical investigation of love includes the tasks of distinguishing between the various kinds of personal love; asking if and how love is/can be justified; asking what the [[value (ethics)|value]] of love is; and what impact love has on the [[autonomy]] of both the lover and the beloved.
There are many different theories which attempt to [[explanation|explain]] what love is, and what function it serves. It would be very difficult to explain love to a hypothetical person who had not himself or herself experienced love or being loved. In fact, to such a person love would appear to be quite strange if not outright irrational behavior. Among the prevailing types of theories that attempt to account for the existence of love there are: [[psychology|psychological]] theories, the vast majority of which consider love to be very healthy behavior; there are [[Evolutionary theory|evolutionary theories]] which hold that love is part of the process of [[natural selection]]; there are [[Spiritualism (beliefs)|spiritual theories]] which may, for instance consider love to be a gift from God; there are also theories that consider love to be an unexplainable mystery, very much like a [[mysticism|mystical experience]].
* Википедияның инглиз телле бүлеге
*{{cite book|last=Chadwick|first=Henry|title=Saint Augustine Confessions|location=Oxford|publisher=Oxford University Press|year=1998|isbn=0-19-283372-3}}
*{{cite book|last=Fisher|first=Helen|title=Why We Love: the Nature and Chemistry of Romantic Love|isbn=0-8050-6913-5}}
*{{cite journal|author=Giles, James|title=A theory of love and sexual desire|year=1994|journal=Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour|volume=24|pages=339–357|doi=10.1111/j.1468-5914.1994.tb00259.x|issue=4}}
*Oord, Thomas Jay. [http://www.bakerpublishinggroup.com/ME2/dirmod.asp?sid=&nm=&type=PubCom&mod=PubComProductCatalog&mid=BF1316AF9E334B7BA1C33CB61CF48A4E&tier=3&id=28DD9865134A4B8C9FB020EB2331E80E Defining Love: A Philosophical, Scientific, and Theological Engagement] (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Brazos, 2010)
*{{cite book|last=Singer|first=Irving|title=The Nature of Love|subtitle=in three volumes|publisher=Random House|year=1966|edition= v.1 reprinted and later volumes from The University of Chicago Press, 1984|isbn=0-226-76094-4}}
*{{cite journal|author=Sternberg, R.J.|title=A triangular theory of love|year=1986|journal=Psychological Review|volume=93|pages=119–135|doi=10.1037/0033-295X.93.2.119|issue=2}}
*{{cite journal|author=Sternberg, R.J.|title=Liking versus loving: A comparative evaluation of theories|year=1987|journal=Psychological Bulletin|volume=102|pages=331–345|doi=10.1037/0033-2909.102.3.331|issue=3}}
*{{cite book|last=Tennov|first=Dorothy|title=Love and Limerence: the Experience of Being in Love|location=New York|publisher=Stein and Day|year=1979|isbn=0-8128-6134-5}}
*{{cite book|author=Wood Samuel E., Ellen Wood and Denise Boyd|title=The World of Psychology|edition=5th|year=2005|publisher=Pearson Education|pages=402–403|isbn=0-205-35868-3}}
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