«Очкыч» битенең юрамалары арасында аерма

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[[File:Emirates Boeing 777 fleet at Dubai International Airport Wedelstaedt .jpg|thumbnail|right|300px|[[Дубай халыкара һава аланы]]ндагы Боинг 777 очкычлары]]
 
'''Очкыч''' (шулай ук '''аэроплан''') — атмосферада[[атмосфера]]да [[очу]] өчен кулланылган һавадан[[һава]]дан авыррак [[очучы машина]]. Очыш машинаның тартуһаваны көчен[[этүче көче]]н тудырган моторы[[мотор]]ы һәм [[күтәрү көченкөче]]н тудыручы канаты[[канат]]ы нигизендә оештырыла. Очкыч канаты башка өлешләренә карата хәрәкәтсез була<ref>{{китап|автор=Никитин Г. А., Баканов Е. А.|исем=Основы авиации: Учебник для вузов гражданской авиации|урын=М.|нәшрият=Транспорт|ел=1984|бит=261}}</ref><ref name=autogenerated1>{{китап|исем=Энциклопедия "Авиация"|урын=М.|нәшрият=Научное издательство "Большая Российская Энциклопедия"|ел=1994|бит=736}}</ref>.
 
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===Очыргычлар===
{{Main|Очыргыч}}
[[File:Kinderspiele 1828 Drachensteigen.jpg|thumb|upright=1.4|1828 елда Алманияда очыгрычны очтыручы малайлар, [[Йохан Михаэль Вольц]]]]
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Kites were used approximately 2,800 years ago in China, where materials ideal for kite building were readily available. Alternatively, other authors hold that leaf kites existed far before that time in what is now Indonesia, based on their interpretation of cave paintings on [[Muna Island]] off [[Sulawesi]].<ref>[http://www.drachen.org/journals/journal10/journal_10.pdf Drachen Foundation Journal Fall 2002, page 18. Two lines of evidence: analysis of leaf kiting and some cave drawings]{{dead link|date=May 2012}}</ref> By at least 549 AD paper kites were being flown, as it was recorded in that year a paper kite was used as a message for a rescue mission.<ref name="needham volume 4 part 1 127">Needham, Volume 4, Part 1, 127.</ref> Ancient and medieval Chinese sources list other uses of kites for measuring distances, testing the wind, lifting men, signalling, and communication for military operations.<ref name="needham volume 4 part 1 127"/> The earliest known Chinese kites were flat (not bowed) and often rectangular. Later, tailless kites incorporated a stabilizing bowline.
 
 
[[File:Kinderspiele 1828 Drachensteigen.jpg|thumb|upright=1.4|Boys flying a kite in 1828 Germany, by [[Johann Michael Voltz]]]]
Stories of kites were brought to Europe by Marco Polo towards the end of the 13th century, and kites were brought back by sailors from Japan and Malaysia in the 16th and 17th centuries.<ref name="G-Kites">{{cite web|url=http://www.gombergkites.com/nkm/hist1.html|title=Kite History: A Simple History of Kiting|last=Anon|work=G-Kites|accessdate=20 June 2010}}</ref> Although they were initially regarded as mere curiosities, by the 18th and 19th centuries kites were being used as vehicles for scientific research.<ref name="G-Kites"/>
 
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===Көч тудыру нәтиҗәсендәге очыш===
<!--[[Image:Wright Flyer III above.jpg|thumb|[[Wright1905 Flyerелның III]]4 pilotedоктябрь byкөнендә OrvilleХуфман Wrightпрериясы overөстендә HuffmanОрвиль Prairie,Врайт 4тарафыннан Octoberочырылган 1905[[Wright Flyer III]] очкычы]]
<!--The [[Wright brothers]] flights in 1903 are recognized by the ''[[Fédération Aéronautique Internationale]]'' (FAI), the standard setting and record-keeping body for [[aeronautics]], as "the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight".<ref>[http://www.fai.org/news_archives/fai/000295.asp FAI News: 100 Years Ago, the Dream of Icarus Became Reality] posted 17 December 2003. Retrieved 5 January 2007.</ref> By 1905, the [[Wright Flyer III]] was capable of fully controllable, stable flight for substantial periods. The Wright brothers credited Otto Lilienthal as a major inspiration for their decision to pursue manned flight.
 
In 1906, [[Alberto Santos Dumont]] made what has been claimed as the first airplane flight unassisted by [[catapult]]<ref>[http://www.airshowfan.com/first-airplane.htm Who designed and flew the first practical airplane?]. Airshowfan.com (20 August 2003).</ref> and set the first world record recognized by the [[Aéro-Club de France]] by flying {{convert|220|m|ft}} in less than 22 seconds.<ref>Jones, Ernest. [http://earlyaviators.com/edumonb.htm "Santos Dumont in France 1906–1916: The Very Earliest Early Birds."] ''earlyaviators.com'', 25 December 2006. Retrieved 17 August 2009.</ref> This flight was also certified by the FAI.<ref>[http://www.aeroclub.com/santos_dumont_14bis_14bis.htm Les vols du 14bis relatés au fil des éditions du journal l'illustration de 1906.] The wording is: "cette prouesse est le premier vol au monde '''homologué''' par l'Aéro-Club de France et la toute jeune Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI)."</ref><!--Armstrong, during his official tour of South American countries as a NASA ambassador, acknowledged Santos Dumont's role during addresses to Brazilian audiences. Please note - this reference does NOT include any acknowledgment of this role in Europe; any editor adding such a European claim should support it with a separate citation.--><!--<ref>[http://www.aeroclub.com/santos_dumont_14bis_index.htm Santos-Dumont: Pionnier de l'aviation, dandy de la Belle Epoque.]{{dead link|date=May 2012}}</ref>
====Кыска күзәтү====
<!--[[Image:IAI Heron 1 in flight 2.JPEG|thumb|right|An [[IAI Heron]] - an [[unmanned aerial vehicle]] with a [[twin boom]] configuration]]
Below is an overview of the most common structures, controls, and instruments of planes. Note that many gliders or sailplanes exhibit the same variety in structure, and share many of the same controls and instruments.-->
=====StructureТөзелеше=====
<!--The most common configuration of a plane includes:
* A ''[[fuselage]]'', a long, thin body, often cylindrical, and usually with tapered or rounded ends to make its shape [[aerodynamically]] smooth. The [[fuselage]] may contain the [[flight crew]], passengers, cargo or [[payload (air and space craft)|payload]], fuel and engines the aircraft is designed for or they may be attached to it. The pilots of manned aircraft operate them from a ''[[Cockpit (aviation)|cockpit]]'' located at the front or top of the fuselage and equipped with controls and usually windows and instruments. A plane may have more than one fuselage, or it may be fitted with booms with the tail located between the booms to allow the extreme rear of the fuselage to be useful for a variety of purposes.
 
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=====Үзгәрүче геометрия=====
[[Image:Dassault Mirage G8.jpg|thumb|Ике [[Dassault Mirage G]] прототиплары, берсенең канаты ук килешәкилешенә китерелгән]]
<!--Variable geometry aircraft have wing configurations that can be changed in flight.
 
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=====Дельта канаты=====
<!--[[Image:Vulcan.delta.arp.jpg|thumb|TheДельта delta wingканатлы [[Avro Vulcan]] bomberбомба атучысы]]
<!--A [[delta wing]] is a wing planform in the form of a triangle. It is named for its similarity in shape to the Greek uppercase letter [[delta (letter)|delta]] (Δ) and has many advantages over other configurations. The delta wing has more internal volume to carry fuel or internal weapons than a wing of a similar thickness to chord ratio, while also allowing [[wing loading]] to be reduced for the amount of drag produced in level flight. If its leading edge is raked back enough, it will escape the [[shock wave]] formed at the nose of the aircraft as [[transonic]] speeds are reached, reducing drag considerably, and the center of lift moves less than on conventionally configured aircraft, reducing trim drag.<ref>Probert, B. [http://ftp.rta.nato.int/public//PubFulltext/RTO/EN/RTO-EN-004///$EN-004-19.pdf "Aspects of Wing Design for Transonic and Supersonic Combat."]</ref> As the [[angle of attack]] increases, the leading edge of the wing generates a [[vortex]] which smooths the airflow, giving the delta a very high [[stall (aerodynamic)|stall]] angle at the cost of high induced drag which allows a larger range in speed than a conventional wing intended for high speed flight. Pure delta-wings fell out of favour somewhat due to poor gust response characteristics at low altitudes (they get bounced around a lot and so must fly slower and higher) and advances in high lift devices, however many of the advantages have been retained by use of leading edge root extensions, which act in the same manner and many modern fighter aircraft, such as the [[JAS 39 Gripen]] and the [[Eurofighter Typhoon]] use a delta wing, often in conjunction with a [[Canard (aeronautics)|canard]].
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====Рама конфигурациясе====
=====Канат белән берләшкән фюзеляж=====
{{main|Blended wing}}
[[Image:NASA BWB.jpg|thumb|right|300px|Computer-generated model of the [[Boeing X-48]] проекты очкычның санакта ясалган моделе]]
<!--Blended wing body aircraft have a flattened and airfoil shaped body, which produces most of the lift to keep itself aloft, and distinct and separate wing structures, though the wings are smoothly blended in with the body.
 
 
=====Пропеллерлы двигатель=====
[[Image:Antonov An-2 in Vitebsk.jpg|right|thumb|AnАнтонов ширкәтенең [[Antonov AnАн-2]] [[biplaneбиплан]]ы]]
 
<!--Smaller and older propeller planes make use of [[reciprocating engine]]s (or piston engines) to turn a [[Propeller (aircraft)|propeller]] to create thrust. The amount of thrust a propeller creates is determined by its disk area - the area in which the blades rotate. If the area is too small, efficiency is poor, and if the area is large, the propeller must rotate at a very low speed to avoid going supersonic and creating a lot of noise, and not much thrust. Because of this limitation, propellers are favoured for planes which travel at below mach .5, while jets are a better choice above that speed. Propeller engines may be quieter than jet engines (though not always) and may cost less to purchase maintain and so remain common on light general aviation aircraft such as the [[Cessna 172]]. Larger modern propeller planes such as the [[Dash 8]] use a jet engine to turn the propeller, primarily because an equivalent piston engine in power output would be much larger and more complex.
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=====Реактив көч тудыручы двигатель=====
[[File:British Airways Concorde G-BOAC 03.jpg|right|thumb|The [[Concorde]] supersonicтавыш тизлегеннән тизрәк очуп кешеләрне ташучы airlinerочкыч]]
 
<!--[[Jet aircraft]] are propelled by [[jet engine]]s, which are used because the aerodynamic limitations of propellers do not apply to jet propulsion. These engines are much more powerful than a reciprocating engine for a given size or weight and are comparatively quiet and work well at higher altitude. Most modern jet planes use [[turbofan]] jet engines which balance the advantages of a propeller, while retaining the exhaust speed and power of a jet. This is essentially a ducted propeller attached to a jet engine, much like a turboprop, but with a smaller diameter. When installed on an airliner, it is efficient so long as it remains below the [[speed of sound]] (or subsonic). Jet fighters and other [[supersonic aircraft]] that do not spend a great deal of time supersonic also often use turbofans, but to function, air intake ducting is needed to slow the air down so that when it arrives at the front of the turbofan, it is subsonic. When passing through the engine, it is then re-accelerated back to supersonic speeds. To further boost the power output, fuel is dumped into the exhaust stream, where it ignites. This is called an [[afterburner]] and has been used on both pure jet aircraft and [[turbojet]] aircraft although it is only normally used on combat aircraft due to the amount of fuel consumed, and even then may only be used for short periods of time. [[Supersonic transport|Supersonic airliners]] (e.g. [[Concorde]]) are no longer in use largely because flight at supersonic speed creates a [[sonic boom]] which is prohibited in most heavily populated areas, and because of the much higher consumption of fuel supersonic flight requires.
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=====Ракета двигателләре=====
[[Image:X-1-1 In Flight - GPN-2000-000134.jpg|thumb|right|[[Bell X-1]] in flightочышы, 1947]]
 
<!--In [[World War II]], the Germans deployed the [[Messerschmitt Me 163|Me 163 Komet]] [[rocket-powered aircraft]]. The first plane to break the [[sound barrier]] in level flight was a rocket plane – the [[Bell X-1]]. The later [[North American X-15]] broke many speed and [[Flight altitude record|altitude records]] and laid much of the groundwork for later aircraft and spacecraft design. Rocket aircraft are not in common usage today, although [[rocket-assisted take off]]s are used for some military aircraft. Recent rocket aircraft include the [[Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne|SpaceShipOne]] and the [[XCOR EZ-Rocket]].
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=====Ramjet һәм scramjet двигателләре=====
[[Image:X43a2 nasa scramjet.jpg|thumb|left|Artist's[[scramjet]] conceptмоторлары ofаскы өлешендә булган X-43A with [[scramjet]] attached toочкычының theконцептуаль undersideрәсеме]]
<!--A [[ramjet]] is a form of jet engine that contains no major moving parts and can be particularly useful in applications requiring a small and simple engine for high-speed use, such as missiles. The [[D-21 Tagboard]] was an Mach 3+ reconnaissance drone that was cancelled in 1971. The [[Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird|SR-71]]'s engines ran 80% as ramjets at high speeds.
 
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