«Дин» битенең юрамалары арасында аерма

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r2.7.3) (робот өстәде: vep:Religii; косметик үзгәртүләр
к (r2.7.3) (робот өстәде: vep:Religii; косметик үзгәртүләр)
[[FileФайл:Religious syms.svg|thumb|250px|Кайбер бөтендөнья диннәрнең символлары, сулдан уңга таба:<br /> 1 рәт: [[Христианлык]], [[Яһүдилек]], [[Һинд дине]]<br />2 рәт: [[Ислам]], [[Буддизм]], [[Шинто]]<br />3 рәт: [[Сикх дине]], [[Баха-и дине]], [[Джайнизм]]]]
[[FileФайл:Prevailing world religions map.png|thumb|300px|Дөньяның төп дини төркемнәрнең таралышы]]
'''Дин''' - [[татар теле]]нә {{lang-ar|دين}} (''дин'') [[сүз]]еннән [[алынма]]сы — [[дөнья]]га [[караш]]ның [[иман]]га нигезләнгән [[төр]]е. Еш кына дин үзе белән төрле [[әхлак]]и [[кагыйдә]]ләр [[система]]сын да үз эченә ала ([[шарт]] түгел).
== Этимология ==
<!--''Religion'' (from O.Fr. ''religion'' "religious community," from L. ''religionem'' (nom. ''religio'') "respect for what is sacred, reverence for the gods,"<ref>{{OEtymD|religion}}</ref> "obligation, the bond between man and the gods"<ref>''[[Shorter Oxford English Dictionary]]</ref>) is derived from the [[Latin language|Latin]] ''religiō'', the ultimate origins of which are obscure. One possibility is derivation from a reduplicated ''{{lang|la|*le-ligare}}'', an interpretation traced to [[Cicero]] connecting ''{{lang|la|lego}}'' "read", i.e. ''re'' (again) + ''lego'' in the sense of "choose", "go over again" or "consider carefully". Modern scholars such as [[Tom Harpur]] and [[Joseph Campbell]] favor the derivation from ''{{lang|la|ligare}}'' "bind, connect", probably from a prefixed ''{{lang|la|re-ligare}}'', i.e. ''re'' (again) + ''ligare'' or "to reconnect," which was made prominent by [[Augustine of Hippo|St. Augustine]], following the interpretation of [[Lactantius]].<ref>In ''The Pagan Christ: Recovering the Lost Light.'' Toronto. Thomas Allen, 2004. ISBN 0-88762-145-7</ref><ref>In ''[[The Power of Myth]],'' with Bill Moyers, ed. Betty Sue Flowers, New York, Anchor Books, 1991. ISBN 0-385-41886-8</ref> The medieval usage alternates with ''order'' in designating bonded communities like those of [[monastic orders]]: "we hear of the 'religion' of the [[Order of the Golden Fleece|Golden Fleece]], of a knight 'of the [[Order of Aviz|religion of Avys]]'".<ref>[[Johan Huizinga]], ''[[The Autumn of the Middle Ages|The Waning of the Middle Ages]]'' (1919) 1924:75.</ref>
The use of other terms, such as obedience to God or [[Islam]] are likewise grounded in particular histories and vocabularies.<ref>Colin Turner. ''Islam without Allah?'' New York: Routledge, 2000. pp. 11-12.</ref>
== Чыгышы ==
<!--There are a number of theories regarding the origins of religion. According to [[anthropologists]] John Monaghan and Peter Just, <blockquote>Many of the great world religions appear to have begun as revitalization movements of some sort, as the vision of a charismatic prophet fires the imaginations of people seeking a more comprehensive answer to their problems than they feel is provided by everyday beliefs. Charismatic individuals have emerged at many times and places in the world. It seems that the key to long-term success – and many movements come and go with little long-term effect – has relatively little to do with the prophets, who appear with surprising regularity, but more to do with the development of a group of supporters who are able to institutionalize the movement.<ref>{{cite book |title= Social & Cultural Anthropology|edition= |last1= Monaghan|first1= John |last2= Just |first2= Peter |year= 2000|publisher= Oxford University Press|location= New York|isbn= 978-0-19-285346-2|page= 126}}</ref></blockquote>
== Дини хәрәкәтләр ==
{{Main|Төп дини төркемнәр}}
[[FileФайл:Molnár Ábrahám kiköltözése 1850.jpg|upright|thumb|[[Ибраһим пәйгамбәр|Ибраһим]] патриархы ([[József Molnár]] рәсеме)]]
* '''[[Abrahamic religions]]''' are [[monotheistic]] religions which believe they descend from [[Abraham]].
=== Дин төрләре ===
{{Main|Дин тарихы|Диннәр тарихы}}
== Диндәге мәсьәләләр ==
=== Дин-ара хезмәттәшлек ===
<!--Because religion continues to be recognized in Western thought as a universal impulse, many religious practitioners have aimed to band together in [[interfaith]] dialogue, cooperation, and [[Religion and peacebuilding|religious peacebuilding]]. The first major dialogue was the [[Parliament of the World's Religions]] at the 1893 [[World's Columbian Exposition|Chicago World's Fair]], which remains notable even today both in affirming "universal values" and recognition of the diversity of practices among different cultures. The 20th century has been especially fruitful in use of interfaith dialogue as a means of solving ethnic, political, or even religious conflict, with [[Christian-Jewish reconciliation]] representing a complete reverse in the attitudes of many Christian communities towards Jews.
Recent interfaith initiatives include "A Common Word", launched in 2007 and focused on bringing Muslim and Christian leaders together,<ref>[http://acommonword.com/ A Common Word]</ref> the "C1 World Dialogue",<ref>[http://www.c1worlddialogue.com/ C1 World Dialogue]</ref> the "Common Ground" initiative between Islam and Buddhism,<ref>[http://islambuddhism.com/ Islam and Buddhism Common Ground]</ref> and a [[United Nations]] sponsored "World Interfaith Harmony Week".<ref>[http://worldinterfaithharmonyweek.com/ World Interfaith Harmony Week]</ref><ref>[http://worldinterfaithharmonyweek.com/world-interfaith-harmony-week-resolution/ UN resolution]</ref>
=== Дөньявилык һәм динсезлек ===
''Шулай ук [[Дин тәнкыйте]], [[Атеизм]], [[Агностицизм]] һәм [[Анти-дин]] карагыз''
== Бәйле фикер формалары ==
=== Дин һәм хорафат ===
''Шулай ук [[Хорафат]], [[Ырымчыл фикерләү]] һәм [[Ырым һәм дин]]не карагыз''.
=== Миф ===
== Дин һәм сәламәтлек ==
{{Main|Диннең сәламәтлеккә йогынтысы}}
<!--[[Mayo Clinic]] researchers examined the association between religious involvement and spirituality, and physical health, mental health, health-related quality of life, and other health outcomes. The authors reported that: "Most studies have shown that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better health outcomes, including greater longevity, coping skills, and health-related quality of life (even during terminal illness) and less anxiety, depression, and suicide."<ref name="Religion and Medicine">{{Cite web|title=Religious Involvement, Spirituality, and Medicine: Implications for Clinical Practice|url=http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.com/content/76/12/1225.full.pdf|quote=We reviewed published studies, meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and subject reviews that examined the association between religious involvement and spirituality and physical health, mental health, health-related quality of life, and other health outcomes. We also reviewed articles that provided suggestions on how clinicians might assess and support the spiritual needs of patients. Most studies have shown that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better health outcomes, including greater longevity, coping skills, and health-related quality of life (even during terminal illness) and less anxiety, depression, and suicide|author=Paul S. Mueller, MD; David J. Plevak, MD; Teresa A. Rummans, MD|accessdate=13 November 2010}}</ref>
== Дин һәм золым ==
{{main|Дини золым}}
''Шулай ук [[Христианлык һәм золым]], [[Яһүди дине һәм золым]] һәм [[Ислам һәм золым]] карагыз''
[[ImageФайл:SiegeofAntioch.jpeg|thumb|The [[Crusades]] were a series of a military campaigns fought mainly between [[Christian]] [[Europe]] and [[Muslim]]s. Shown here is a battle scene from the [[First Crusade]]. They were inspired at the ''jihad'' of the Islam civilization. ]]
Charles Selengut characterizes the phrase "religion and violence" as "jarring", asserting that "religion is thought to be opposed to violence and a force for peace and reconciliation. He acknowledges, however, that "the history and scriptures of the world's religions tell stories of violence and war as they speak of peace and love."<ref name=Selengut>{{cite book |title=Sacred fury: understanding religious violence |first=Charles |last=Selengut|page=1|url=http://books.google.com/?id=mOqtEkGlq0cC&pg=PR7&dq=%22sectarian+violence%22+%22religious+violence%22#v=onepage&q=%22sectarian%20violence%22%20%22religious%20violence%22&f=false |isbn=978-0-7425-6084-0 |date=2008-04-28}}
== Дин һәм канун ==
{{Expand section|date=August 2010}}
There are laws and statutes that make reference to religion.<ref>An example is the [[Establishment Clause of the First Amendment|Establishment Clause]] in the [[First Amendment to the United States Constitution]]. However the [[Supreme Court of the United States|US Supreme Court]] has intentionally not pinned down a precise legal definition to allow for flexibility in preserving rights for what might be regarded as a religion over time. [http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Religion]</ref> This has led scholar Winnifred Sullivan to claims that religious freedom is impossible.<ref>Winnifred Fallers Sullivan, ''The Impossibility of Religious Freedom''. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005.</ref> Others argue that the Western legal principle of [[separation of church and state]] tends to engender a new, more inclusive [[civil religion]].<ref>Ronald C. Wimberley and James A. Christenson. "[http://www.jstor.org/stable/4106009 Civil Religion and Church and State]". ''The Sociological Quarterly'', Vol. 21, No. 1 (Winter, 1980), pp. 35-40</ref>
== Дин һәм фән ==
<!--{{Main|Дин һәм фән мөнәсәбәтләре|Эпистемиология}}
In contrast, the [[scientific method]] gains knowledge by testing hypotheses to develop [[theories]] through elucidation of facts or evaluation by [[experiments]] and thus only answers [[physical cosmology|cosmological]] questions about the [[universe]] that can be observed and measured. It develops [[theory|theories]] of the world which best fit physically observed evidence. All scientific knowledge is subject to later refinement, or even outright rejection, in the face of additional evidence. Scientific theories that have an overwhelming preponderance of favorable evidence are often treated as ''[[de facto]]'' verities in general parlance, such as the theories of [[general relativity]] and [[natural selection]] to explain respectively the mechanisms of [[gravity]] and [[evolution]].
=== Дин һәм эволюция теориясе ===
{{main|Creation–evolution controversy}}
In some religions, particularly Christianity and Islam, there have been disputes between doctrines of [[creationism]] and the [[evolution]] theory. The dispute is between those who, despite [[Evidence of common descent|evidence of evolution]], argue for religious accounts of creation [[creation science|as a scientific theory]], and those who defend the conclusions of modern [[evolutionary biology]], [[geology]], [[cosmology]], and other related fields. Although Christian objections to evolution have been prominent, and the debate has often been portrayed as part of the [[culture war]]s,<ref>{{harvnb|Larson|2004|pages=247–263}}. Chapter titled ''Modern Culture Wars''. See also {{harvnb|Ruse|1999|p=26}}, who writes "One thing that historians delighted in showing is that, contrary to the usually held tale of [[conflict thesis|science and religion being always opposed]]…religion and theologically inclined philosophy have frequently been very significant factors in the forward movement of science."</ref> the controversy is also present in Europe and elsewhere,<ref name="Science-Feb09">{{harvnb|Curry|2009|p=1159}} "News coverage of the creationism-versus-evolution debate tends to focus on the United States … But in the past 5 years, political clashes over the issue have also occurred in countries all across Europe. … "This isn't just an American problem," says Dittmar Graf of the Technical University of Dortmund, who organized the meeting."</ref> and Muslims are the largest single group of creationists.<ref>{{cite book|last=Thompson|first=Damian|title=Counterknowledge|pages=39-45|isbn=978-1843546757}}</ref>
== Дин Христиан концепциясе буларак ==
=== Җәмгыяви конструкционистлар ===
<!--In recent years, some academic writers have described religion according to the theory of [[social constructionism]], which considers how ideas and social phenomena develop in a social context. Among the main proponents of this theory of religion are Timothy Fitzgerald, Daniel Dubuisson and Talal Asad. The social constructionists argue that religion is a modern concept that developed from Christianity and was then applied inappropriately to non-Western cultures.
[[Image:Huxisanxiaotu.jpg|thumb|300px|''[[Confucianism]], [[Taoism]], and [[Buddhism]] are one'', a painting in the ''litang style'' portraying three men laughing by a river stream, 12th century, [[Song Dynasty]]]]
=== Башка язучылар ===
<!--Similar views have been put forward by writers who are not social constructionists. [[George Lindbeck]], a [[Lutheran]] and a [[Postliberal theology|postliberal theologian]], says that religion does not refer to belief in "[[God]]" or a transcendent Absolute, but rather to "a kind of cultural and/or linguistic framework or medium that shapes the entirety of life and thought ... it is similar to an idiom that makes possible the description of realities, the formulation of beliefs, and the experiencing of inner attitudes, feelings, and sentiments.”<ref>George A. Lindbeck, ''Nature of Doctrine'' (Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1984), 33.</ref> [[Nicholas de Lange]], Professor of Hebrew and Jewish Studies at [[Cambridge University]], says that "The comparative study of religions is an academic discipline which has been developed within Christian theology faculties, and it has a tendency to force widely differing phenomena into a kind of strait-jacket cut to a Christian pattern. The problem is not only that other 'religions' may have little or nothing to say about questions which are of burning importance for Christianity, but that they may not even see themselves as religions in precisely the same way in which Christianity sees itself as a religion."<ref>Nicholas de Lange, ''Judaism'', Oxford University Press, 1986</ref>
== Тәнкыть ==
{{main|Диннең тәнкыйте}}
Critics consider religion to be outdated, harmful to the individual (such as [[brainwashing]] of children, [[faith healing]], [[circumcision]]), harmful to society (such as [[religious war|holy war]]s, [[terrorism]], wasteful distribution of resources), to impede the progress of [[science]], and to encourage immoral acts (such as blood sacrifice, [[homophobia|discrimination against homosexuals]] [[misogyny|and women]]).
== Шулай ук карагыз ==
{{Portal box|Дин|Рухият}}
{{Main|Дин төзелеше|Дин белән бәйле мәкаләләр исемлеге}}
{{div col end}}
== Искәрмәләр ==
=== Әдәбият ===
<div class="references-small">
*Saint Augustine; ''The Confessions of Saint Augustine'' (John K. Ryan translator); Image (1960), ISBN 0-385-02955-1.
== Сылтамалар ==
*[http://ucblibraries.colorado.edu/govpubs/us/religion.htm Religion Statistics] from ''UCB Libraries GovPubs''
[[vi:Tôn giáo]]
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