«Мөшрик» битенең юрамалары арасында аерма

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[['''Мөшрик]]''' — ''[[Мәжүси]] (күп [[илаһ|аллага]] ышанучы) яки башка [[мөселман]] булмаган кеше''<ref>[http://garap-farsy.narod.ru/moosh.htm Татар телендә гарәп һәм фарсы алынмалары сүзлеге]</ref>.
Коръәндә, ''ширк'' ({{lang-ar|شرك}}) - күп аллаларга ышану ([[политеизм]]), аларга мөрәҗәгать итү, ягъни бердән бер Аллаһтан башка затларга яки әйберләргә гыйбадәт кылу, яки (сүзгә-сүз - Аллаһ янында "тиңнәрне" булдыру мәгънәдә кулланыла. Бу тәүхид It is the vice that is opposed to the virtue of ''[[тәүхид]]'' ([[монотеизм]]) сәвабының каршылыгы булган гөнаһ.<ref name="Kamoonpuri">Kamoonpuri, S: "Basic Beliefs of Islam" pages 42–58. Tanzania Printers Limited, 2001.</ref>.
Бу сүзнең тамышдашы ''мушрик'' (مشركون) - "күпаллалыкка ышанучы, Исламга каршы чыгучы" мәгънәсенә туры килә, һәм еш Коръәндә Исламның дошманнарына мөрәҗәгать итү өчен кулланыла (9.1–15 аять), ләкин шулай да еш хата кылучы [[мөселман]]нарны билгеләр өчен дә кулланыла.<ref>[[:en:Shirk (Islam)]]</ref>
== Шулай ук карагыз ==
Islamic commentators on the Qur'an have emphasized that [[Pre-Islamic Arabian gods|pre-Islamic Arabic idolatry]] made a number of godlings (most memorably the three goddesses [[Manah|al-Manāt]], [[Allat|al-Lāt]] and [[Uzza|ʻUzzā]]) equal associates of Allah (as the Qur'an discusses in the [[An-Najm|53rd surat]]) and the word ''mushrikūn'' (singular: ''mushrik'') is often translated into English as "polytheists".
Other forms of ''shirk'' include the worship of wealth and other material objects. This is pointed out in the [[Qur'an]] in one of the stories of the [[Children of Israel]], when they took a calf made of gold for worship,<ref>{{cite web|title=Qur'an 7:148–150|url=http://www.sacred-texts.com/isl/yaq/yaq007.htm}}</ref> and for which Moses ordered them to repent. Another form of shirk mentioned in the Qur'an is to take scholars of religion, monks, divines or religious lawyers as Lord/(s) in practice by following their doctrines, and/or by following their rulings on what is lawful when it is at variance to the law or doctrines prescribed by God's revelation.<ref>{{cite web|title=Qur'an 9:31|url=http://www.internetmosque.net/read/english_translation_of_the_quran_meaning/9/31/index.htm}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Yusuf Ali translation of 9:31, footnote 1266|url=http://al-quran.info/default.aspx?x=y#&&sura=9&aya=31&trans=en-yusuf_ali&show=both,quran-uthmani&ver=2.00}}</ref> Yet another form, is to treat a prophet, such as Jesus, as God.
==Theological interpretation==
Medieval Muslim (as well as Jewish) philosophers identified belief in the [[Trinity]] with the heresy of ''shirk'', in Arabic, (or ''[[shituf]]'' in Hebrew), meaning "associationism," in limiting the infinity of God by associating his divinity with physical existence.<ref>Learning from other faiths Hermann Häring, Janet Martin Soskice, Felix Wilfred - 2003 - 141 "Medieval Jewish (as well as Muslim) philosophers identified belief in the Trinity with the heresy of shituf (Hebrew) or shirk (Arabic): 'associationism', or limiting the infinity of God by associating his divinity with creaturely being"</ref>
In a theological context one commits ''shirk'' by associating some lesser being with ''[[Allah]]''. This sin is committed if one imagines that there is some other spirit than ''Allah'' whom it is suitable to [[worship]]. Many Islamic theologians extend the sense of worship to include praying to some other being to intercede with Allah on one's behalf, rather than taking one's case to God Himself. The limits of the concept of worship are quite elastic and theologians often describe excessive veneration of some [[Artifact (archaeology)|artifact]] here on earth as ''shirk''.
[[Atheism]] is described as ''shirk'' because it denies the position of ''Allah'' as the unique creator and sustainer of the universe (''tawhid ar-rububiyya'', the Unity of Lordship). In the same way, the act of ''shirk'' is extended to include such things as the notion that God possesses human-like [[anthropomorphism|anthropomorphic]] qualities as well as acts of worship or [[piety]] whose inward goal is [[pride]], caprice, or a desire for public admiration.
==Greater and lesser shirk==
''Shirk'' is defined in various ways. Some argue that there is only one type of ''shirk''.
The Islamic prophet [[Muhammad]] has classified ''shirk'' into two categories<ref name="Kamoonpuri"/>:
*Greater shirk (''Shirk-al-Akbar''): open and apparent
*Lesser shirk (''Shirk-al-Asghar''): concealed or hidden
===Greater Shirk===
Greater ''shirk'' or ''Shirke-al-Akbar'' means open polytheism.
Muhammad describes major ''shirk'' in two forms<ref name="Kamoonpuri"/>:
*To associate anyone with ''Allah Taala'' as His part (to believe in more than one god).
*To associate ''Allah's'' attributes with someone else. (Attributing, considering, or portraying God's knowledge or might to being those of anyone else)
Other interpretations also derived from the [[Qur'an]] and the prophetic tradition ([[Sunnah]]) divide ''shirk'' into three main categories.shirk can be committed by acting against the three different categories
====In Rubūbīyah (Lordship)====
This category of Shirk refers to either the belief that others share God's Lordship over creation as His equal or near equal, or to the belief that there exists no Lord over creation at all.
*Shirk by association: This is the shirk concerned with associating 'others' with Allah.
*Shirk by negation: This is Shirk in Rubūbīyah (Lordship)
====In al-Asma was-Sifat (the names and attributes)====
Shirk in this category includes both the non-believer practices of giving God the attributes of His creation as well as the act of giving created beings God's names and attributes.
*Shirk by humanization: In this aspect of Shirk in al-Asma was-Sifat, God is given the form and qualities of human beings and animals. Due to man's superiority over animals, the human form is more commonly used by idolaters to represent God in creation. Consequently, the image of the Creator is often painted, moulded or carved in the shape of human beings possessing the physical features of those who worship them.
*Shirk by deification: This form of Shirk in al-Asma was Sifat relates to cases where created beings or things are given or claim God's names or His attributes. For example, it was the practice of the ancient Arabs to worship idols whose names were derived from the names of God. Their main three idols were: al-Lat taken from God's name al-Elah, al-'Uzza taken from al-'Aziz, and al-Manat taken from al-Mannan. During the era of Muhammad there was also a man in a region of Arabia called Yamamah, who claimed to be a prophet and took the name [[Rahman (Islamic term)|Rahman]] which, in Islam, belongs only to God.
====In al-'Ibadah (worship)====
In this category of Shirk, acts of worship are directed to other than Allah and the reward for worship is sought from the creation instead of the Creator. As in the case of the previous categories, Shirk in al-'Ebadah has two main aspects.
This form of Shirk occurs when any act of worship is directed to other than Allah. It represents the most obvious form of [[idolatry]] which the prophets were specifically sent by God to call the masses of mankind away from. Examples of this shirk, asking forgiveness, admittance to paradise, and other things that only Allah can provide, from other than Allah.
===Көче Ширк===
Lesser ''shirk'' or ''Shirke-e-Asghar'' means hidden polytheism.
A person commits hidden polytheism when he says ''tawhid'', there is no god except Allah, but his thoughts and action does not reflect his belief.<ref name="Kamoonpuri"/>
Lesser ''shirk'' fundamentally stems from an underestimation of God. This intellectual defect leads to pride, arrogance, and self-delusion.<ref name="shah-kazemi">Shah-Kazemi, R: "The Sacred Foundations of Justice in Islam: The Teachings of 'Ali ibn Abi Talib", ''A Sacred Conception of Justice: Imam 'Ali's Letter to Malik al-Ashtar'' pages 75–76.</ref>
*Muhammad said<ref name="Kamoonpuri"/><blockquote>
<p>"One who offers the ritual prayers in an ostentatious way is a polytheist. One who keeps the fast, or gives alms, or performs the ''Hajj'' to show the public his righteousness or to earn good name is a polytheist"</p>
*Other accounts<blockquote>
<p>"Mahmud ibn Lubayd reported, "God's messenger said: "The thing I fear for you the most is ash-Shirk al-Asghar."
:The companions asked "Oh! messenger of God, what is that?"
:He replied "Ar-Riya (showing off), for verily God will say on the Day of Resurrection when people are receiving their rewards, 'Go to those for whom you were showing off in the material world and see if you can find any reward from them."</p>
<p>"Mahmud ibn Lubayd also said, "The Prophet came out and announced, 'O people, beware of secret Shirk!'
:The people asked, 'O messenger of God, what is secret Shirk?'
:He replied, 'When a man gets up to pray and strives to beautify his prayer because people are looking at him; that is secret Shirk."</p>
[[Umar ibn al-Khattab|Umar Ibn Al-Khattab]] narrated that the Messenger of Allah said: 'Whoever swears by other than Allah has committed an act of kufr or shirk.’” (graded [[Saheeh#.E1.B8.A4asan|''hasan'']] by [[Al-Tirmidhi]] and [[Saheeh#.E1.B9.A2a.E1.B8.A5.C4.AB.E1.B8.A5|''saheeh'']] by [[Hakim al-Nishaburi|Al-Hakim]])
[[Abdullah, son of Masud|Ibn Mas’ood]], one of Muhammad’s [[Sahabah|companions]], said: "That I should swear by Allah upon a lie is more preferable to me than that I should swear by another upon the truth.”<ref>"Kitab At-Tawheed" by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, chapter 40</ref>
==Шулай ук карагыз==
*[[Исламга кадәрге гарәп иле]]
* [[Динсезлек]]
*{{cite web
|title=Relations between Muslims and non-Muslims in the thought of Western-educated Muslim intellectuals – Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations
[[Төркем:Ислам төшенчәләре]]
[[ar:شرك بالله]]
[[en:Shirk (Islam)]]
[[fa:شرک (دین)]]
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