Төп менюны ачу

Үзгәрешләр

64 742 байта добавлено ,  7 лет назад
к
төзәтмә аңлатмасы юк
[[File:Religious syms.svg|thumb|250px|Кайбер бөтендөнья диннәрнең символлары, сулдан уңга таба:<br /> 1 рәт: [[Христианлык]], [[Яһүдилек]], [[Һинд дине]]<br />2 рәт: [[Ислам]], [[Буддизм]], [[Шинто]]<br />3 рәт: [[Сикх дине]], [[Баха-и дине]], [[Джайнизм]]]]
'''Дин''' ({{lang-ar|دين}} (''дин'') сүзеннән) — [[ышану]]га [[нигез]]ләнгән [[дөнья]]ны [[күзаллау]]ның бер [[төр]]е. Еш кына дин үзе белән төрле [[әхлак]]и [[кагыйдә]]ләр [[система]]сын да үз эченә ала ([[шарт]] түгел). Бүгенге [[көн]]дә иң таралган диннәр:
 
* [[Христианлык]]
[[File:Prevailing world religions map.png|thumb|300px|Дөньяның төп дини төркемнәрнең таралышы]]
* [[Ислам]]
 
* [[Буддизм]]
'''Дин''' ({{lang-ar|دين}} (''дин'') сүзеннән) — [[ышану]]га [[нигез]]ләнгән [[дөнья]]ны [[күзаллау]]ның бер [[төр]]е. Еш кына дин үзе белән төрле [[әхлак]]и [[кагыйдә]]ләр [[система]]сын да үз эченә ала ([[шарт]] түгел).
 
==Этимология==
<!--''Religion'' (from O.Fr. ''religion'' "religious community," from L. ''religionem'' (nom. ''religio'') "respect for what is sacred, reverence for the gods,"<ref>{{OEtymD|religion}}</ref> "obligation, the bond between man and the gods"<ref>''[[Shorter Oxford English Dictionary]]</ref>) is derived from the [[Latin language|Latin]] ''religiō'', the ultimate origins of which are obscure. One possibility is derivation from a reduplicated ''{{lang|la|*le-ligare}}'', an interpretation traced to [[Cicero]] connecting ''{{lang|la|lego}}'' "read", i.e. ''re'' (again) + ''lego'' in the sense of "choose", "go over again" or "consider carefully". Modern scholars such as [[Tom Harpur]] and [[Joseph Campbell]] favor the derivation from ''{{lang|la|ligare}}'' "bind, connect", probably from a prefixed ''{{lang|la|re-ligare}}'', i.e. ''re'' (again) + ''ligare'' or "to reconnect," which was made prominent by [[Augustine of Hippo|St. Augustine]], following the interpretation of [[Lactantius]].<ref>In ''The Pagan Christ: Recovering the Lost Light.'' Toronto. Thomas Allen, 2004. ISBN 0-88762-145-7</ref><ref>In ''[[The Power of Myth]],'' with Bill Moyers, ed. Betty Sue Flowers, New York, Anchor Books, 1991. ISBN 0-385-41886-8</ref> The medieval usage alternates with ''order'' in designating bonded communities like those of [[monastic orders]]: "we hear of the 'religion' of the [[Order of the Golden Fleece|Golden Fleece]], of a knight 'of the [[Order of Aviz|religion of Avys]]'".<ref>[[Johan Huizinga]], ''[[The Autumn of the Middle Ages|The Waning of the Middle Ages]]'' (1919) 1924:75.</ref>
 
According to the [[philologist]] [[Max Müller]], the root of the English word "religion", the [[Latin]] ''[[:wikt:religio|religio]]'', was originally used to mean only "reverence for God or the gods, careful pondering of divine things, [[pietas|piety]]" (which [[Cicero]] further derived to mean "diligence").<ref>[[Max Müller]], ''Natural Religion'', p.33, 1889</ref><ref>[http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0059%3Aentry%3D%2340976 Lewis & Short, ''A Latin Dictionary'']</ref> [[Max Müller]] characterized many other cultures around the world, including Egypt, Persia, and India, as having a similar power structure at this point in history. What is called ancient religion today, they would have only called "law".<ref>[[Max Müller]]. ''[http://books.google.com/books?pg=PA28&id=aM0FAAAAQAAJ&as_brr=4 Introduction to the science of religion]''. p. 28.</ref>
 
Many languages have words that can be translated as "religion", but they may use them in a very different way, and some have no word for religion at all. For example, the [[Sanskrit]] word [[dharma]], sometimes translated as "religion", also means law. Throughout classical [[South Asia]], the [[Dharmaśāstra|study of law]] consisted of concepts such as [[Prāyaścitta|penance through piety]] and [[Ācāra|ceremonial as well as practical traditions]]. Medieval Japan at first had a similar union between "imperial law" and universal or "Buddha law", but these later became independent sources of power.<ref>[[Toshio Kuroda|Kuroda, Toshio]] and Jacqueline I. Stone, translator. "[http://web.archive.org/web/20030323095019/http://www.nanzan-u.ac.jp/SHUBUNKEN/publications/jjrs/pdf/477.pdf The Imperial Law and the Buddhist Law]." ''Japanese Journal of Religious Studies'' 23.3-4 (1996)</ref><ref>Neil McMullin. ''Buddhism and the State in Sixteenth-Century Japan''. Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 1984.</ref>
 
There is no precise equivalent of "religion" in Hebrew, and [[Judaism]] does not distinguish clearly between religious, national, racial, or ethnic identities.<ref>Hershel Edelheit, Abraham J. Edelheit, [http://www.questia.com/library/book/history-of-zionism-a-handbook-and-dictionary-by-abfaham-j-edelheit-hershel-edelheit.jsp History of Zionism: A Handbook and Dictionary], p.3, citing [[Solomon Zeitlin]], ''The Jews. Race, Nation, or Religion?'' ( Philadelphia: Dropsie College Press, 1936).</ref> One of its central concepts is "[[halakha]]", sometimes translated as "law"", which guides religious practice and belief and many aspects of daily life.
 
The use of other terms, such as obedience to God or [[Islam]] are likewise grounded in particular histories and vocabularies.<ref>Colin Turner. ''Islam without Allah?'' New York: Routledge, 2000. pp. 11-12.</ref>
-->
==Чыгышы==
<!--There are a number of theories regarding the origins of religion. According to [[anthropologists]] John Monaghan and Peter Just, <blockquote>Many of the great world religions appear to have begun as revitalization movements of some sort, as the vision of a charismatic prophet fires the imaginations of people seeking a more comprehensive answer to their problems than they feel is provided by everyday beliefs. Charismatic individuals have emerged at many times and places in the world. It seems that the key to long-term success – and many movements come and go with little long-term effect – has relatively little to do with the prophets, who appear with surprising regularity, but more to do with the development of a group of supporters who are able to institutionalize the movement.<ref>{{cite book |title= Social & Cultural Anthropology|edition= |last1= Monaghan|first1= John |last2= Just |first2= Peter |year= 2000|publisher= Oxford University Press|location= New York|isbn= 978-0-19-285346-2|page= 126}}</ref></blockquote>
-->
==Дини хәрәкәтләр==
{{Main|Төп дини төркемнәр}}
<!--
In the 19th and 20th centuries, the academic practice of [[comparative religion]] divided religious belief into philosophically defined categories called "world religions." However, some recent scholarship has argued that not all types of religion are necessarily separated by mutually exclusive philosophies, and furthermore that the utility of ascribing a practice to a certain philosophy, or even calling a given practice religious, rather than cultural, political, or social in nature, is limited.<ref name="pennington">Brian Kemble Pennington ''Was Hinduism Invented?'' New York: Oxford University Press US, 2005. ISBN 0-19-516655-8</ref><ref>Russell T. McCutcheon. ''Critics Not Caretakers: Redescribing the Public Study of Religion''. Albany: SUNY Press, 2001.</ref><ref>Nicholas Lash. ''The beginning and the end of 'religion'.'' Cambridge University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-521-56635-5</ref> The current state of psychological study about the nature of religiousness suggests that it is better to refer to religion as a largely invariant phenomenon that should be distinguished from cultural norms (i.e. "religions").<ref>Joseph Bulbulia. "Are There Any Religions? An Evolutionary Explanation." ''Method & Theory in the Study of Religion'' 17.2 (2005), pp.71-100</ref> The list of religious movements given here is therefore an attempt to summarize the most important regional and philosophical influences on local communities, but it is by no means a complete description of every religious community, nor does it explain the most important elements of individual religiousness.
-->
[[Христианлык]], [[Ислам]], [[Буддизм]] һәм [[Һинд дине]] бүгенге көндә 5-7 миллиард кешене үзенә алган дип саналучы төп дүрт дини төркем.
 
{| class="wikitable" style="width:800px;"
|+
|- style="background:#666688;"
! style="width:250px;"| Дүрт төп дин
! style="width:300px;"| Тотучылар
! style="width:250px;"| Дөнья халкының %
! style="width:250px;"| Мәкалә{{Circular-ref|date=September 2011}}
|- style="text-align:center;" bgcolor=
| '''Дөнья халык саны'''
| '''6.99 billion'''<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.census.gov/population/popclockworld.html|title=U.S. Census Bureau - World POPClock Projection}}</ref>
| colspan="2" | ''Figures taken from individual articles:''
|- style="text-align:center; background:#e0e8ee;"
| [[Христианлык]]
| 2,1-2,2 миллиард
| 33% – 34%
| [[Христианлыкның илләр буенча таралышы]]
|- style="text-align:center; background:#e0e8ee;"
| [[Ислам]]
| 1,5-1,5 миллиард<ref>[http://pewforum.org/Mapping-the-Global-Muslim-Population.aspx Mapping the Global Muslim Population - Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
| 22% – 23%
| [[Мөселман халык саны буенча илләр исемлеге]]
|- style="text-align:center; background:#e0e8ee;"
| [[Буддизм]]
| 0,5-1,9 миллиард<ref name=sync>Югары саны үзенә [[синкретизм]]ны алу белән бирелә.</ref>
| 7% – 29%<ref name=sync/>
| [[Буддизмның илләр буенча таралышы]]
|- style="text-align:center; background:#e0e8ee;"
| [[Һинд дине]]
| 1,0 – 1,1 billion
| 15,2% – 16,2%
| [[Һинд диненең илләр буенча таралышы]]
|- style="text-align:center; background:#e0e8ee;"
|- bgcolor= class="sortbottom"
! Тулаем
! 5,1 – 6,8 миллиард<ref name=sync/>
! 77% – 99%<ref name=sync/>
!
|}
[[File:Molnár Ábrahám kiköltözése 1850.jpg|upright|thumb|[[Ибраһим]] патриархы ([[József Molnár]] рәсеме)]]
<!--
* '''[[Abrahamic religions]]''' are [[monotheistic]] religions which believe they descend from [[Abraham]].
:* '''[[Judaism]]''' is the oldest Abrahamic religion, originating in the people of [[History of ancient Israel and Judah|ancient Israel and Judea]]. Judaism is based primarily on the [[Torah]], a text which some Jews believe was handed down to the people of Israel through the prophet [[Moses]]. This along with the rest of the [[Hebrew Bible]] and the [[Talmud]] are the central texts of Judaism. The [[Jewish people]] were scattered after the destruction of the [[Temple in Jerusalem]] in 70 CE. Today there are about 13 million Jews, about 40 per cent living in Israel and 40 per cent in the United States.<ref>[http://www.cbs.gov.il/shnaton61/st02_27.pdf]</ref>
:* '''[[Christianity]]''' is based on the life and teachings of [[Jesus of Nazareth]] (1st century) as presented in the [[New Testament]]. The Christian faith is essentially faith in Jesus as the [[Christ]], the [[Son of God]], and as [[Messiah|Savior]] and Lord. Almost all Christians believe in the [[Trinity]], which teaches the unity of [[God the Father|Father]], [[God the Son|Son]] (Jesus Christ), and [[Holy Spirit]] as three persons in [[monotheism|one Godhead]]. Most Christians can describe their faith with the [[Nicene Creed]]. As the religion of [[Byzantine Empire]] in the first millennium and of [[Western Europe]] during the time of colonization, Christianity has been propagated throughout the world. The main divisions of Christianity are, according to the number of adherents:
:** '''[[Catholic Church]]''', headed by the [[Pope]] in [[Rome]], is a [[Communion (Christian)|communion]] of the [[Latin Rite|Western church]] and 22&nbsp;[[Eastern Catholic Churches|Eastern Catholic churches]].
:** '''[[Protestantism]]''', separated from the Catholic Church in the 16th-century [[Protestant Reformation|Reformation]] and split in many denominations,
:** '''[[Eastern Christianity]]''' which include [[Eastern Orthodoxy]], [[Oriental Orthodoxy]] and the [[Church of the East]].
::There are other smaller groups, such as [[Jehovah's Witnesses]] and the [[Latter Day Saint movement]], whose inclusion in Christianity is sometimes disputed.
[[Image:Kaaba mirror edit jj.jpg|upright|thumb|[[Muslim]]s praying around [[Kaaba]], the most sacred site in [[Islam]]]]
:* '''[[Islam]]''' refers to the religion taught by the [[Prophets of Islam|Islamic prophet]] [[Muhammad]], a major political and religious figure of the 7th century CE. Islam is the dominant religion of northern Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia. As with Christianity, there is no single orthodoxy in Islam but a multitude of traditions which are generally categorized as [[Sunni]] and [[Shia]], although there are [[Divisions of Islam#Heterodox groups|other minor groups]] as well. [[Wahhabi]] is the dominant Muslim [[Maddhab|schools of thought]] in the [[Kingdom of Saudi Arabia]]. There are also several [[Islamic republic]]s, including [[Iran]], which is run by a Shia [[Supreme Leader]].
:* The '''[[Bahá'í Faith]]''' was founded in the 19th century in Iran and since then has spread worldwide. It teaches unity of all religious philosophies and accepts all of the prophets of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam as well as additional prophets including its founder [[Bahá'u'lláh]].
:* Smaller regional Abrahamic groups, including [[Samaritanism]] (primarily in Israel and the West Bank), the [[Rastafari movement]] (primarily in Jamaica), and [[Druze]] (primarily in Syria and Lebanon).
[[File:Rama, Lakshman and Sita at the Kalaram Temple, Nashik..jpg|upright|thumb|[[Hindu]] statue of [[Rama]] in Kalaram Temple ([[India]])]]
* '''[[Indian religions]]''' are practiced or were founded in the [[Indian subcontinent]].
** '''[[Hinduism]]''' is a [[synecdoche]] describing the similar philosophies of [[Vaishnavism]], [[Shaivism]], and [[Hindu denominations|related groups]] practiced or founded in the [[Indian subcontinent]]. Concepts most of them share in common include [[karma]], [[caste]], [[reincarnation]], [[mantra]]s, [[yantra]]s, and [[darśana]].<ref name = trad>Hinduism is variously defined as a "religion", "set of religious beliefs and practices", "religious tradition" etc. For a discussion on the topic, see: "Establishing the boundaries" in Gavin Flood (2003), pp. 1-17. [[René Guénon]] in his'' Introduction to the Study of the Hindu Doctrines'' (1921 ed.), Sophia Perennis, ISBN 0-900588-74-8, proposes a definition of the term "religion" and a discussion of its relevance (or lack of) to Hindu doctrines (part II, chapter 4, p. 58).</ref> Hinduism is the most ancient of still-active religions,<ref> P. 484 ''Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions'' By Wendy Doniger, M. Webster, Merriam-Webster, Inc </ref><ref> P. 219 ''Faith, Religion & Theology'' By Brennan Hill, Paul F. Knitter, William Madges </ref> with origins perhaps as far back as prehistoric times.<ref> P. 6 ''The World's Great Religions'' By Yoshiaki Gurney Omura, Selwyn Gurney Champion, Dorothy Short </ref> Hinduism is not a monolithic religion but a religious category containing dozens of separate philosophies amalgamated as [[Sanātana Dharma]], which is the name with whom Hinduism has been known throughout history by its followers.
** '''[[Jainism]]''', taught primarily by [[Parsva]] (9th century BCE) and [[Mahavira]] (6th century BCE), is an ancient Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence for all forms of living beings in this world. Jains are found mostly in India.
**'''[[Buddhism]]''' was founded by [[Gautama Buddha|Siddhattha Gotama]] in the 6th century BCE. Buddhists generally agree that Gotama aimed to help [[Sentient beings (Buddhism)|sentient beings]] end their [[dukkha|suffering (dukkha)]] by understanding the [[dharma|true nature of phenomena]], thereby escaping the cycle of suffering and rebirth ([[saṃsāra]]), that is, achieving [[Nirvana]].
*** '''[[Theravada]] Buddhism''', which is practiced mainly in [[Sri Lanka]] and Southeast Asia alongside folk religion, shares some characteristics of Indian religions. It is based in a large collection of texts called the [[Pali Canon]].
*** Under the heading of '''[[Mahayana]]''' (the "Great Vehicle") fall a multitude of doctrines which began their development [[Buddhism in China|in China]] and are still relevant [[Buddhism in Vietnam|in Vietnam]], [[Buddhism in Korea|in Korea]], [[Buddhism in Japan|in Japan]], and to a lesser extent [[Buddhism in the West|in Europe and the United States]]. Mahayana Buddhism includes such disparate teachings as [[Zen]], [[Pure Land]], and [[Soka Gakkai]].
*** '''[[Vajrayana]] Buddhism''', sometimes considered a form of Mahayana, was developed in [[Tibet]] and is still most prominent there and in surrounding regions.
*** Two notable new Buddhist sects are [[Hòa Hảo]] and the [[Dalit Buddhist movement]], which were developed separately in the 20th century.
** '''[[Sikhism]]''' is a monotheistic religion founded on the teachings of [[Guru Nanak]] and ten successive [[Sikh Gurus]] in 15th century [[Punjab region|Punjab]]. Sikhs are found mostly in India.
** There are dozens of new religious movements within Indian religions and [[Hindu reform movements]], such as [[Ayyavazhi]], [[Swaminarayan Faith]] and [[Ananda Marga]].
[[File:Maneckji Sett Agiary entrance.jpg|upright|thumb|Zoroastrian [[Fire Temple]]]]
* '''[[Iranian religions]]''' are ancient religions whose roots predate the [[Islamization]] of [[Greater Iran]]. Nowadays these religions are practiced only by minorities.
** '''[[Zoroastrianism]]''' is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of prophet [[Zoroaster]] in the 6th century BC. The Zoroastrians worship the [[Creator deity|Creator]] [[Ahura Mazda]]. In Zoroastrianism good and evil have distinct sources, with evil trying to destroy the creation of Mazda, and good trying to sustain it.
** '''[[Mandaeism]]''' is a [[monotheistic]] religion with a strongly [[Dualism|dualistic]] worldview. Mandaeans are sometime labeled as the "Last [[Gnosticism|Gnostics]]".
** '''[[Kurdish people#Religion|Kurdish religions]]''' include the traditional beliefs of the [[Yazidi]], [[Alevi]], and [[Ahl-e Haqq]]. Sometimes these are labeled [[Yazdânism]].
[[File:Chinese temple incence burner.jpg|right|thumb|upright|[[Incense]] burner in China]]
* '''[[Folk religion]]''' is a term applied loosely and vaguely to less-organized local practices. It is also called [[paganism]], [[shamanism]], [[animism]], [[ancestor worship]], [[matriarchal religion]], or [[totemism]], although not all of these elements are necessarily present in local belief systems. The category of "folk religion" can generally include anything that is not part of an organization. Modern [[neopagan]] movement draws on folk religion for inspiration to varying degrees.
** '''[[African traditional religion]]''' is a category including any type of religion practiced in Africa before the arrival of Islam and Christianity, such as [[Yoruba religion]] or [[San religion]]. There are many varieties of [[Afro-American religion|religions developed by Africans in the Americas]] derived from African beliefs, including [[Santería]], [[Candomblé]], [[Umbanda]], [[Haitian Vodou|Vodou]], and [[Oyotunji]].
** '''Folk religions of the Americas''' include [[Aztec religion]], [[Inca religion]], [[Maya religion]], and modern Catholic beliefs such as the [[Our Lady of Guadalupe|Virgin of Guadalupe]]. [[Native American mythology|Native American religion]] is practiced across the continent of North America.
** '''[[Australian Aboriginal culture]]''' contains [[Australian Aboriginal mythology|a mythology]] and sacred practices characteristic of folk religion.
** '''[[Chinese folk religion]]''', practiced by [[Chinese people]] around the world, is a primarily social practice including popular elements of [[Confucianism]] and [[Taoism]], with some remnants of Mahayana Buddhism. Most Chinese do not identify as religious due to the strong [[Maoist]] influence on the country in recent history, but adherence to religious ceremonies remains common. New religious movements include [[Falun Gong]] and [[I-Kuan Tao]].
** Traditional '''[[Religion in Korea|Korean religion]]''' is a syncretic mixture of Mahayana Buddhism and [[Korean shamanism]]. Unlike Japanese Shinto, Korean shamanism was never codified and Buddhism was never made a social necessity. In some areas these traditions remain prevalent, but [[Christianity in Korea|Korean-influenced Christianity]] is also influential in society and politics in South Korea.
** Traditional '''[[Religion in Japan|Japanese religion]]''' is a mixture of Mahayana Buddhism and ancient indigenous practices which were codified as [[Shinto]] in the 19th century. Japanese people retain nominal attachment to both Buddhism and Shinto through social ceremonies, but [[irreligion]] is common.
[[File:Sepulveda Unitarian Universalist Society Sanctuary.PNG|thumb|upright|A [[Modernism|Modern-style]] Unitarian Universalist sanctuary]]
* A variety of '''[[new religious movement]]s''' still practiced today have been founded in many other countries besides Japan and the United States, including:
** '''[[Shinshūkyō]]''' is a general category for a wide variety of religious movements founded in Japan since the 19th century. These movements share almost nothing in common except the place of their founding. The largest religious movements centered in Japan include [[Soka Gakkai]], [[Tenrikyo]], and [[Seicho-No-Ie]] among hundreds of smaller groups.
** '''[[Cao Đài]]''' is a syncretistic, monotheistic religion, established in [[Vietnam]] in 1926.
** '''[[Unitarian Universalism]]''' is a religion characterized by support for a "free and responsible search for truth and meaning," and has no accepted [[creed]] or [[theology]].
** '''[[Scientology]]''' teaches that people are immortal beings who have forgotten their true nature. Its method of spiritual rehabilitation is a type of counseling known as [[auditing]], in which practitioners aim to consciously re-experience painful or traumatic events in their past in order to free themselves of their limiting effects.
** '''[[Eckankar]]''' is a religion with the purpose of making God an everyday reality in one's life.
 
[[Sociological classifications of religious movements]] suggest that within any given religious group, a community can resemble various types of structures, including "churches", "denominations", "sects", "cults", and "institutions".
 
[[File:Holika Dahan, Kathamandu, Nepal.jpg|thumb|The [[Hindu]] population of South Asia comprises about 2,000 [[caste]]s.<ref>[http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/285248/India/46404/Caste India&nbsp;– Caste]. Encyclopædia Britannica.</ref> According to some Hindu literature, there are 330 million (including local and regional) [[Hindu deities]].<ref>{{Cite book| year=2003 | title = World Religions: A Voyage of Discovery | author1=Jeffrey Brodd | publisher=Saint Mary's Press | isbn=978-0-88489-725-5 | page=45 | url=http://books.google.com/?id=vOzNo4MVlgMC&pg=PA45&dq=%22330+million%22 | ref=harv | postscript=<!--None-->}}: '[..] many gods and goddesses (traditionally 330 million!) [...] Hinduism generally regards its 330 million as deities as extensions of one ultimate reality, many names for one ocean, many "masks" for one God.'</ref>]]
-->
 
===Дин төрләре===
{{Дин тарихы}}{{See|Диннәр тарихы}}
 
<!--
Some scholars classify religions as either ''universal religions'' that seek worldwide acceptance and actively look for new converts, or ''[[ethnic religion]]s'' that are identified with a particular ethnic group and do not seek converts.<ref name="Hinnells">{{Cite book|title=The Routledge companion to the study of religion |last=Hinnells |first=John R. |year=2005 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=0-415-33311-3 |pages=439–440 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=IGspjXKxIf8C |accessdate=2009-09-17}}</ref> Others reject the distinction, pointing out that all religious practices, whatever their philosophical origin, are ethnic because they come from a particular culture.<ref>Timothy Fitzgerald. ''The Ideology of Religious Studies''. New York: Oxford University Press USA, 2000.</ref><ref>Craig R. Prentiss. ''Religion and the Creation of Race and Ethnicity''. New York: NYU Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8147-6701-X</ref><ref>Tomoko Masuzawa. ''The Invention of World Religions, or, How European Universalism Was Preserved in the Language of Pluralism''. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005. ISBN 0-226-50988-5</ref>
-->
==Диндәге мәсьәләләр==
===Дин-ара хезмәттәшлек===
<!--Because religion continues to be recognized in Western thought as a universal impulse, many religious practitioners have aimed to band together in [[interfaith]] dialogue, cooperation, and [[Religion and peacebuilding|religious peacebuilding]]. The first major dialogue was the [[Parliament of the World's Religions]] at the 1893 [[World's Columbian Exposition|Chicago World's Fair]], which remains notable even today both in affirming "universal values" and recognition of the diversity of practices among different cultures. The 20th century has been especially fruitful in use of interfaith dialogue as a means of solving ethnic, political, or even religious conflict, with [[Christian-Jewish reconciliation]] representing a complete reverse in the attitudes of many Christian communities towards Jews.
 
Recent interfaith initiatives include "A Common Word", launched in 2007 and focused on bringing Muslim and Christian leaders together,<ref>[http://acommonword.com/ A Common Word]</ref> the "C1 World Dialogue",<ref>[http://www.c1worlddialogue.com/ C1 World Dialogue]</ref> the "Common Ground" initiative between Islam and Buddhism,<ref>[http://islambuddhism.com/ Islam and Buddhism Common Ground]</ref> and a [[United Nations]] sponsored "World Interfaith Harmony Week".<ref>[http://worldinterfaithharmonyweek.com/ World Interfaith Harmony Week]</ref><ref>[http://worldinterfaithharmonyweek.com/world-interfaith-harmony-week-resolution/ UN resolution]</ref>
-->
===Дөньявичылык һәм irreligion===
<!--{{Main|Secularism|Irreligion}}
{{See also|Criticism of religion|Atheism|Agnosticism|Antireligion}}
 
The terms "[[atheist]]" (lack of belief in any gods) and "agnostic" (belief in the unknowability of the existence of gods), though specifically contrary to theistic (e.g. Christian, Jewish, and Muslim) religious teachings, do not by definition mean the opposite of "religious". There are religions (including Buddhism and Taoism), in fact, that classify some of their followers as agnostic, atheistic, or [[nontheism|nontheistic]]. The true opposite of "religious" is the word "irreligious". [[Irreligion]] describes an absence of any religion; [[antireligion]] describes an active opposition or aversion toward religions in general.
 
Critics of religion consider it to be to be outdated, harmful to the individual (e.g. [[brainwashing]] of children, [[faith healing]], [[circumcision]]), harmful to society (e.g. [[religious war|holy war]]s, [[terrorism]], wasteful distribution of resources), to impede the progress of [[science]], and to encourage immoral acts (e.g. [[human sacrifice|blood sacrifice]], [[homophobia|discrimination against homosexuals]] [[misogyny|and women]]). A major criticism of many religions is that they require beliefs that are irrational, unscientific, or unreasonable, because religious beliefs and traditions lack scientific or rational foundations.
 
As religion became a more personal matter in Western culture, discussions of society found a new focus on political and scientific meaning, and religious attitudes (dominantly Christian) were increasingly seen as irrelevant for the needs of the European world. On the political side, [[Ludwig Feuerbach]] recast Christian beliefs in light of humanism, paving the way for [[Karl Marx]]'s famous characterization of religion as "[[Opium of the people|the opium of the people]]". Meanwhile, in the scientific community, [[Thomas Henry Huxley|T.H. Huxley]] in 1869 coined the term "[[agnostic]]," a term—subsequently adopted by such figures as [[Robert G. Ingersoll|Robert Ingersoll]]—that, while directly conflicting with and novel to Christian tradition, is accepted and even embraced in some other religions. Later, [[Bertrand Russell]] told the world ''[[Why I Am Not a Christian]]'', which influenced several later authors to discuss their breakaway from their own religious uprbringings from Islam to Hinduism.
 
Some modern-day critics, such as [[Bryan Caplan]], hold that religion lacks utility in human society; they may regard religion as irrational.<ref>{{cite web|title=Why Religious Beliefs Are Irrational, and Why Economists Should Care|author=Bryan Caplan | url=http://econfaculty.gmu.edu/bcaplan/ldebate.htm}} The article about religion and irrationality.</ref> Nobel Peace Laureate [[Shirin Ebadi]] has spoken out against undemocratic Islamic countries justifying "oppressive acts" in the name of Islam.<ref>Earth Dialogues 2006 Conference, Brisbane. "In these countries, Islamic rulers want to solve 21st century issues with laws belonging to 14 centuries ago. Their views of human rights are exactly the same as it was 1400 years ago."</ref>
-->
==Бәйле фикер формалары==
===Дин һәм superstition===
<!--
{{See|Superstition|Magical thinking|Magic and religion}}
Superstition has been described as "the incorrect establishment of cause and effect" or a false conception of causation.<ref>[http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~kfoster/FosterKokko2008%20Proc%20B%20superstition.pdf Kevin R. Foster and Hanna Kokko, "The evolution of superstitious and superstition-like behaviour", ''Proc. R. Soc. B'' (2009) 276, 31–37]{{dead link|date=January 2011}}</ref> Religion is more complex and includes social institutions and morality. But religions may include superstitions or make use of magical thinking. Adherents of one religion sometimes think of other religions as superstition.<ref>{{Cite book
|title=[[Religion Explained]]
|last=Boyer
|authorlink= Pascal Boyer
|chapter=Why Belief
|chapterurl=http://books.google.com/books?id=wreF80OHTicC&pg=PA297&lpg=PA297&dq=%22fang+too+were+quite+amazed%22
|year=2001
}}</ref><ref>{{Harvnb|Fitzgerald|2007|page=232}}</ref>
Some [[atheists]], [[deists]], and [[skeptics]] regard religious belief as superstition.
 
Greek and Roman pagans, who saw their relations with the gods in political and social terms, scorned the man who constantly trembled with fear at the thought of the gods (''deisidaimonia''), as a slave might fear a cruel and capricious master. The Romans called such fear of the gods ''superstitio''.<ref>Veyne 1987, p 211 {{Clarify|date=September 2010}}</ref> [[Early Christianity]] was outlawed as a ''superstitio Iudaica'', a "Jewish superstition", by [[Domitian]] in the 80s AD. In AD 425, when Rome had become Christian, [[Theodosius II]] outlawed [[Ancient Roman religion|pagan traditions]] as superstitious.
 
The Roman Catholic Church considers superstition to be sinful in the sense that it denotes a lack of trust in the divine providence of God and, as such, is a violation of the first of the Ten Commandments. The [[Catechism of the Catholic Church]] states that superstition "in some sense represents a perverse excess of religion" (para. #2110). "Superstition," it says, "is a deviation of religious feeling and of the practices this feeling imposes. It can even affect the worship we offer the true God, e.g., when one attributes an importance in some way magical to certain practices otherwise lawful or necessary. To attribute the efficacy of prayers or of sacramental signs to their mere external performance, apart from the interior dispositions that they demand is to fall into superstition. Cf. Matthew 23:16-22" (para. #2111)
-->
===Миф===
{{Main|Мифология}}
<!--
The word ''myth'' has several meanings.
#A traditional story of ostensibly historical events that serves to unfold part of the world view of a people or explain a practice, belief, or natural phenomenon;
#A person or thing having only an imaginary or unverifiable existence; or
#A metaphor for the spiritual potentiality in the human being.<ref>Joseph Campbell, ''The Power of Myth'', p. 22 ISBN 0-385-24774-5</ref>
[[Image:Urarina shaman B Dean.jpg|thumb|left|upright|[[Urarina]] [[shaman]], 1988]]
 
Ancient [[polytheism|polytheistic]] religions, such as those of [[Ancient Greece|Greece]], [[Ancient Rome|Rome]], and [[Scandinavia]], are usually categorized under the heading of [[mythology]]. Religions of pre-industrial peoples, or [[culture]]s in development, are similarly called "myths" in the [[anthropology of religion]]. The term "myth" can be used pejoratively by both religious and non-religious people. By defining another person's religious stories and beliefs as mythology, one implies that they are less real or true than one's own religious stories and beliefs. [[Joseph Campbell]] remarked, "Mythology is often thought of as ''other people's'' religions, and religion can be defined as mis-interpreted mythology."<ref>Joseph Campbell, ''Thou Art That: Transforming Religious Metaphor''. Ed. Eugene Kennedy. New World Library ISBN 1-57731-202-3.</ref>
 
In sociology, however, the term ''myth'' has a non-pejorative meaning. There, ''myth'' is defined as a story that is important for the group whether or not it is objectively or provably true. Examples include the death and [[resurrection]] of [[Jesus]], which, to Christians, explains the means by which they are freed from sin and is also ostensibly a historical event. But from a mythological outlook, whether or not the event actually occurred is unimportant. Instead, the [[symbol]]ism of the death of an old "life" and the start of a new "life" is what is most significant. Religious believers may or may not accept such symbolic interpretations.
{{clear}}
-->
==Дин һәм сәламәтлек==
{{Main|Impacts of religion on health}}
 
<!--[[Mayo Clinic]] researchers examined the association between religious involvement and spirituality, and physical health, mental health, health-related quality of life, and other health outcomes. The authors reported that: "Most studies have shown that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better health outcomes, including greater longevity, coping skills, and health-related quality of life (even during terminal illness) and less anxiety, depression, and suicide."<ref name="Religion and Medicine">{{Cite web|title=Religious Involvement, Spirituality, and Medicine: Implications for Clinical Practice|url=http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.com/content/76/12/1225.full.pdf|quote=We reviewed published studies, meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and subject reviews that examined the association between religious involvement and spirituality and physical health, mental health, health-related quality of life, and other health outcomes. We also reviewed articles that provided suggestions on how clinicians might assess and support the spiritual needs of patients. Most studies have shown that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better health outcomes, including greater longevity, coping skills, and health-related quality of life (even during terminal illness) and less anxiety, depression, and suicide|author=Paul S. Mueller, MD; David J. Plevak, MD; Teresa A. Rummans, MD|accessdate=13 November 2010}}</ref>
-->
==Дин һәм золым==
{{main|Religious violence}}
{{See also|Christianity and violence|Judaism and violence|Islam and violence}}
[[Image:SiegeofAntioch.jpeg|thumb|The [[Crusades]] were a series of a military campaigns fought mainly between [[Christian]] [[Europe]] and [[Muslim]]s. Shown here is a battle scene from the [[First Crusade]]. They were inspired at the ''jihad'' of the Islam civilization. ]]
<!--
Charles Selengut characterizes the phrase "religion and violence" as "jarring", asserting that "religion is thought to be opposed to violence and a force for peace and reconciliation. He acknowledges, however, that "the history and scriptures of the world's religions tell stories of violence and war as they speak of peace and love."<ref name=Selengut>{{cite book |title=Sacred fury: understanding religious violence |first=Charles |last=Selengut|page=1|url=http://books.google.com/?id=mOqtEkGlq0cC&pg=PR7&dq=%22sectarian+violence%22+%22religious+violence%22#v=onepage&q=%22sectarian%20violence%22%20%22religious%20violence%22&f=false |isbn=978-0-7425-6084-0 |date=2008-04-28}}
</ref>
 
[[Hector Avalos]] argues that, because religions claim divine favor for themselves, over and against other groups, this sense of righteousness leads to violence because conflicting claims to superiority, based on unverifiable appeals to God, cannot be adjudicated objectively.<ref>{{cite book|title=Fighting Words: The Origins of Religious Violence |first=Hector |last=Avalos|publisher=Prometheus Books |location=Amherst, New York|year=2005}}</ref>
 
Critics of religion [[Christopher Hitchens]] and [[Richard Dawkins]] go further and argue that religions do tremendous harm to society by using violence to promote their goals, in ways that are endorsed and exploited by their leaders.<ref name="Hitchens 2007">{{Cite book|last=Hitchens|first=Christopher|title=God is not Great|publisher=Twelve|year=2007}}</ref>{{Page needed|date=September 2010}}<ref name="Dawkins 2006">{{Cite book|last=Dawkins|first=Richard|title=The God Delusion|publisher=Bantam Books|year=2006}}</ref>{{Page needed|date=September 2010}}
 
Regina Schwartz argues that all monotheistic religions are inherently violent because of an exclusivism that inevitably fosters violence against those that are considered outsiders.<ref name=ReginaSchwartz>{{cite book |title=The Curse of Cain: The Violent Legacy of Monotheism By Regina M. Schwartz |publisher=University of Chicago Press |year=1998}}</ref> Lawrence Wechsler asserts that Schwartz isn't just arguing that Abrahamic religions have a violent legacy, but that the legacy is actually genocidal in nature.<ref>{{cite web |last=Wechsler |first=Lawrence |title=Mayhem and Monotheism|url=http://faculty.plts.edu/gpence/2490/PDF/mayhem.pdf}}</ref>
 
Byron Bland asserts that one of the most prominent reasons for the "rise of the secular in Western thought" was the reaction against the religious violence of the 16th and 17th centuries. He asserts that "(t)he secular was a way of living with the religious differences that had produced so much horror. Under secularity, political entities have a warrant to make decisions independent from the need to enforce particular versions of religious orthodoxy. Indeed, they may run counter to certain strongly held beliefs if made in the interest of common welfare. Thus, one of the important goals of the secular is to limit violence."<ref>{{cite web |first=Byron |last=Bland |title=Evil Enemies: The Convergence of Religion and Politics|url=http://www.law.stanford.edu/program/centers/scicn/papers/religion_and_political_violence.pdf |date = May 2003|page=4}}</ref>
 
Nonetheless, believers have used similar arguments when responding to atheists in these discussions, pointing to the [[Criticism_of_atheism#Atheism_and_totalitarian_regimes|widespread imprisonment and mass murder]] of individuals under [[state atheism|atheist states]] in the twentieth century:<ref name="John S. Feinberg, Paul D. Feinberg">{{cite book|url = http://books.google.com/books?id=Nl-f5SKq9mgC&pg=PA697&dq=Aleksandr+Solzhenitsyn+But+if+I+were+asked+today+to+formulate+as+concisely+as+possible+the+main+cause+of+the+ruinous+revolution+that+swallowed+up+some+60+million+of+our+people,+I+could+not+put+it+more+accurately+than+to+repeat:+'Men+have+forgotten+God;+that's+why#v=onepage&q&f=false|author=John S. Feinberg, Paul D. Feinberg|title =Ethics for a Brave New World|publisher =[[Crossway Books]]|quote=Over a half century ago, while I was still a child, I recall hearing a number of old people offer the following explanation for the great disasters that had befallen Russia: 'Men have forgotten God; that's why all this has happened.'
Since then I have spend well-nigh 50 years working on the history of our revolution; in the process I have read hundreds of books, collected hundreds of personal testimonies, and have already contributed eight volumes of my own toward the effort of clearing away the rubble left by that upheaval. But if I were asked today to formulate as concisely as possible the main cause of the ruinous revolution that swallowed up some 60 million of our people, I could not put it more accurately than to repeat: 'Men have forgotten God; that's why all this has happened.'|accessdate = 2007–10–18}}</ref><ref name="Genocide">{{cite web|url = http://www.str.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=5527|title =The Real Murderers: Atheism or Christianity?|publisher =[[Stand To Reason]]|author=Gregory Koukl|accessdate = 2007–10–18|authorlink = Greg Koukl}}</ref><ref name="Totalitarianism and Atheism">{{cite web|url = http://catholiceducation.org/articles/apologetics/ap0214.htm|title =Answering Atheist’s Arguments|publisher = Catholic Education Resource Center|author=Dinesh D'Souza|accessdate = 2007–10–18|authorlink = Dinesh D'Souza}}</ref>
{{quote|And who can deny that Stalin and Mao, not to mention Pol Pot and a host of others, all committed atrocities in the name of a Communist ideology that was explicitly atheistic? Who can dispute that they did their bloody deeds by claiming to be establishing a 'new man' and a religion-free utopia? These were mass murders performed with atheism as a central part of their ideological inspiration, they were not mass murders done by people who simply happened to be atheist.|[[Dinesh D'Souza]]<ref name="Totalitarianism and Atheism"/>}}
 
In response to such a line of argument, however, author Sam Harris writes:
"The problem with fascism and communism, however, is not that they are too critical of religion; the problem is that they are too much like religions. Such regimes are dogmatic to the core and generally give rise to personality cults that are indistinguishable from cults of religious hero worship. Auschwitz, the gulag and the killing fields were not examples of what happens when human beings reject religious dogma; they are examples of political, racial and nationalistic dogma run amok. There is no society in human history that ever suffered because its people became too reasonable."<ref>[http://www.edge.org/3rd_culture/harris06/harris06_index.html 10 myths and 10 truths about Atheism] Sam Harris</ref></blockquote>
 
Richard Dawkins has stated that Stalin's atrocities were influenced not by atheism but by dogmatic [[Marxism]],<ref name='God_Delusion7'>{{Cite book| last = Dawkins | first = Richard | authorlink = Richard Dawkins | coauthors = | title = The God Delusion | publisher = Houghton Mifflin | date = 2006-09-18| location = Ch. 7| url = http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_God_Delusion | doi = | id = | isbn = 978-0-618-68000-9 |ref=harv}}</ref> and concludes that while Stalin and Mao happened to be atheists, they did not do their deeds in the name of atheism.<ref>Interview with Richard Dawkins conducted by Stephen Sackur for BBC News 24’s HardTalk programme, July 24th 2007. [http://richarddawkins.net/article,1454,Richard-Dawkins-on-Hardtalk,BBC-Richard-Dawkins]</ref> On other occasions, Dawkins has replied to the argument that [[Adolf Hitler]] and Josef Stalin were antireligious with the response that Hitler and Stalin also grew moustaches, in an effort to show the argument as fallacious.<ref>[http://richarddawkins.net/articles/915 The Video: Bill O'Reilly Interviews Richard Dawkins]</ref> Instead, Dawkins argues in ''[[The God Delusion]]'' that "What matters is not whether Hitler and Stalin were atheists, but whether atheism systematically influences people to do bad things. There is not the smallest evidence that it does."<ref>{{Harvnb|Dawkins|2006|page=309}}</ref> D'Souza responds that an individual need not explicitly invoke atheism in committing atrocities if it is already implied in his worldview, as is the case in Marxism.<ref name="D'Souza 2">[http://catholiceducation.org/articles/apologetics/ap0214.htm Answering Atheist’s Arguments] Dinesh D'Souza</ref>
-->
==Дин һәм канун==
<!--
{{Expand section|date=August 2010}}
There are laws and statutes that make reference to religion.<ref>An example is the [[Establishment Clause of the First Amendment|Establishment Clause]] in the [[First Amendment to the United States Constitution]]. However the [[Supreme Court of the United States|US Supreme Court]] has intentionally not pinned down a precise legal definition to allow for flexibility in preserving rights for what might be regarded as a religion over time. [http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Religion]</ref> This has led scholar Winnifred Sullivan to claims that religious freedom is impossible.<ref>Winnifred Fallers Sullivan, ''The Impossibility of Religious Freedom''. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005.</ref> Others argue that the Western legal principle of [[separation of church and state]] tends to engender a new, more inclusive [[civil religion]].<ref>Ronald C. Wimberley and James A. Christenson. "[http://www.jstor.org/stable/4106009 Civil Religion and Church and State]". ''The Sociological Quarterly'', Vol. 21, No. 1 (Winter, 1980), pp. 35-40</ref>
-->
==Дин һәм фән==
<!--{{Main|Relationship between religion and science|Epistemology}}
 
Religious knowledge, according to religious practitioners, may be gained from religious leaders, [[sacred texts]], [[scriptures]], or personal [[revelation]]. Some religions view such knowledge as unlimited in scope and suitable to answer any question; others see religious knowledge as playing a more restricted role, often as a complement to knowledge gained through physical observation. Adherents to various religious faiths often maintain that religious knowledge obtained via sacred texts or revelation is absolute and infallible and thereby creates an accompanying [[religious cosmology]], although the proof for such is often [[tautology (rhetoric)|tautological]] and generally limited to the religious texts and revelations that form the foundation of their belief.
 
In contrast, the [[scientific method]] gains knowledge by testing hypotheses to develop [[theories]] through elucidation of facts or evaluation by [[experiments]] and thus only answers [[physical cosmology|cosmological]] questions about the [[universe]] that can be observed and measured. It develops [[theory|theories]] of the world which best fit physically observed evidence. All scientific knowledge is subject to later refinement, or even outright rejection, in the face of additional evidence. Scientific theories that have an overwhelming preponderance of favorable evidence are often treated as ''[[de facto]]'' verities in general parlance, such as the theories of [[general relativity]] and [[natural selection]] to explain respectively the mechanisms of [[gravity]] and [[evolution]].
-->
===Дин һәм эволюция теориясе===
<!--
{{main|Creation–evolution controversy}}
In some religions, particularly Christianity and Islam, there have been disputes between doctrines of [[creationism]] and the [[evolution]] theory. The dispute is between those who, despite [[Evidence of common descent|evidence of evolution]], argue for religious accounts of creation [[creation science|as a scientific theory]], and those who defend the conclusions of modern [[evolutionary biology]], [[geology]], [[cosmology]], and other related fields. Although Christian objections to evolution have been prominent, and the debate has often been portrayed as part of the [[culture war]]s,<ref>{{harvnb|Larson|2004|pages=247–263}}. Chapter titled ''Modern Culture Wars''. See also {{harvnb|Ruse|1999|p=26}}, who writes "One thing that historians delighted in showing is that, contrary to the usually held tale of [[conflict thesis|science and religion being always opposed]]…religion and theologically inclined philosophy have frequently been very significant factors in the forward movement of science."</ref> the controversy is also present in Europe and elsewhere,<ref name="Science-Feb09">{{harvnb|Curry|2009|p=1159}} "News coverage of the creationism-versus-evolution debate tends to focus on the United States … But in the past 5 years, political clashes over the issue have also occurred in countries all across Europe. … "This isn't just an American problem," says Dittmar Graf of the Technical University of Dortmund, who organized the meeting."</ref> and Muslims are the largest single group of creationists.<ref>{{cite book|last=Thompson|first=Damian|title=Counterknowledge|pages=39-45|isbn=978-1843546757}}</ref>
-->
==Дин Христиан концепциясе буларак==
===Җәмгыяви конструкционистлар===
<!--In recent years, some academic writers have described religion according to the theory of [[social constructionism]], which considers how ideas and social phenomena develop in a social context. Among the main proponents of this theory of religion are Timothy Fitzgerald, Daniel Dubuisson and Talal Asad. The social constructionists argue that religion is a modern concept that developed from Christianity and was then applied inappropriately to non-Western cultures.
 
Dubuisson, a French anthropologist, says that the idea of religion has changed a lot over time and that one cannot fully understand its development by relying on etymology, which "tends to minimize or cancel out the role of history".<ref name=dubuisson/> "What the West and the history of religions in its wake have objectified under the name 'religion'", he says, " is ... something quite unique, which could be appropriate only to itself and its own history."<ref name=dubuisson/> He notes that [[St. Augustine]]'s definition of ''religio'' differed from the way we used the modern word "religion".<ref name=dubuisson>Daniel Dubuisson, ''The Western Construction of Religion''</ref> Dubuisson prefers the term "cosmographic formation" to religion. Dubuisson says that, with the emergence of religion as a category separate from culture and society, there arose [[religious studies]]. The initial purpose of religious studies was to demonstrate the superiority of the "living" or "universal" European world view to the "dead" or "ethnic" religions scattered throughout the rest of the world, expanding the teleological project of [[Schleiermacher]] and [[Cornelis Petrus Tiele|Tiele]] to a worldwide ideal religiousness.<ref>Daniel Dubuisson. "Exporting the Local: Recent Perspectives on 'Religion' as a Cultural Category", ''Religion Compass'', 1.6 (2007), p.792.</ref> Due to shifting theological currents, this was eventually supplanted by a liberal-ecumenical interest in searching for Western-style universal truths in every cultural tradition.<ref>Tomoko Masuzawa, ''The Invention of World Religions.'' Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.</ref> [[Clifford Geertz]]'s definition of religion as a "cultural system" was proposed in the 20th century and continues to be widely accepted today.
 
According to Fitzgerald, the history of other cultures' interaction with the religious category is not about a universal constant,{{Clarify|date=August 2010}} but rather concerns a particular idea that first developed in Europe under the influence of [[Christianity]].<ref>{{Cite book|ref=harv|first=Timothy|last=Fitzgerald|title=Discourse on Civility and Barbarity|publisher=Oxford University Press|year=2007|pages=45–46}}</ref> Fitzgerald argues that from about the 4th century CE Western Europe and the rest of the world diverged. As Christianity became commonplace, the [[charismatic authority]] identified by Augustine, a quality we might today call "religiousness", exerted a commanding influence at the local level. This system persisted in the eastern [[Byzantine Empire]] following the [[East-West Schism]], but Western Europe regulated unpredictable expressions of charisma through the [[Roman Catholic Church]]. As the Church lost its dominance during the [[Protestant Reformation]] and Christianity became closely tied to political structures, religion was recast as the basis of national [[sovereignty]], and religious identity gradually became a less universal sense of spirituality and more divisive, locally defined, and tied to nationality.<ref>{{Harvnb|Fitzgerald|2007|page=194}}</ref> It was at this point that "religion" was dissociated with universal beliefs and moved closer to [[dogma]] in both meaning and practice. However there was not yet the idea of dogma as personal choice, only of [[established church]]es. With the Enlightenment religion lost its attachment to nationality, says Fitzgerald, but rather than becoming a universal social attitude, it now became a personal feeling or emotion.<ref>{{Harvnb|Fitzgerald|2007|page=268}}</ref> [[Friedrich Schleiermacher]] in the late 18th century defined religion as ''das schlechthinnige Abhängigkeitsgefühl'', commonly translated as "a feeling of absolute dependence".<ref>Hueston A. Finlay. "‘Feeling of absolute dependence’ or ‘absolute feeling of dependence’? A question revisited". ''Religious Studies'' 41.1 (2005), pp.81-94.</ref> His contemporary [[Hegel]] disagreed thoroughly, defining religion as "the Divine Spirit becoming conscious of Himself through the finite spirit."<ref>[[Max Müller]]. "Lectures on the origin and growth of religion."</ref>
 
Asad argues that before the word "religion" came into common usage, Christianity was a ''disciplina'', a "rule" just like that of the Roman Empire. This idea can be found in the writings of [[St. Augustine]] (354–430). Christianity was then a power structure opposing and superseding human institutions, a literal Kingdom of Heaven. It was the discipline taught by one's family, school, church, and city authorities, rather than something calling one to self-discipline through symbols.<ref>Talal Asad, ''Genealogies of Religion''. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1993 p.34-35.</ref>
 
These ideas are developed by [[S. N. Balagangadhara]]. In the [[Age of Enlightenment]], Balagangadhara says that the idea of Christianity as the purest expression of spirituality was supplanted by the concept of "religion" as a worldwide practice.<ref>S. N. Balagangadhara. ''The Heathen in His Blindness...'' New York: Brill Academic Publishers, 1994. p.159.</ref> This caused such ideas as [[religious freedom]], a reexamination of classical [[philosophy]] as an alternative to Christian thought, and more radically [[Deism]] among intellectuals such as [[Voltaire]]. Much like Christianity, the idea of "religious freedom" was exported around the world as a civilizing technique, even to regions such as [[India]] that had never treated spirituality as a matter of political identity.<ref name="pennington"/> In [[Japan]], where Buddhism was still seen as a philosophy of [[natural law]],<ref>Jason Ānanda Josephson. "When Buddhism Became a 'Religion'". ''Japanese Journal of Religious Studies'' 33.1: 143–168.</ref> the concept of "religion" and "religious freedom" as separate from other power structures was unnecessary until Christian missionaries demanded free access to conversion, and when Japanese Christians refused to engage in patriotic events.<ref>Isomae Jun’ichi. "Deconstructing 'Japanese Religion'". ''Japanese Journal of Religious Studies'' 32.2: 235–248.</ref>
 
[[Image:Huxisanxiaotu.jpg|thumb|300px|''[[Confucianism]], [[Taoism]], and [[Buddhism]] are one'', a painting in the ''litang style'' portraying three men laughing by a river stream, 12th century, [[Song Dynasty]]]]
-->
===Башка язучылар===
<!--Similar views have been put forward by writers who are not social constructionists. [[George Lindbeck]], a [[Lutheran]] and a [[Postliberal theology|postliberal theologian]], says that religion does not refer to belief in "[[God]]" or a transcendent Absolute, but rather to "a kind of cultural and/or linguistic framework or medium that shapes the entirety of life and thought ... it is similar to an idiom that makes possible the description of realities, the formulation of beliefs, and the experiencing of inner attitudes, feelings, and sentiments.”<ref>George A. Lindbeck, ''Nature of Doctrine'' (Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1984), 33.</ref> [[Nicholas de Lange]], Professor of Hebrew and Jewish Studies at [[Cambridge University]], says that "The comparative study of religions is an academic discipline which has been developed within Christian theology faculties, and it has a tendency to force widely differing phenomena into a kind of strait-jacket cut to a Christian pattern. The problem is not only that other 'religions' may have little or nothing to say about questions which are of burning importance for Christianity, but that they may not even see themselves as religions in precisely the same way in which Christianity sees itself as a religion."<ref>Nicholas de Lange, ''Judaism'', Oxford University Press, 1986</ref>
-->
==Тәнкыть==
{{main|Диннең тәнкыйте}}
<!--
Religious criticism has a long history, going back at least as far as the 5th century BCE in [[ancient Greece]] with [[Diagoras of Melos|Diagoras "the atheist" of Melos]], and 1st century BCE in [[ancient Rome|Rome]] with [[Titus Lucretius Carus]]'s ''[[De Rerum Natura]]'', and continuing to the present day with the advent of [[New Atheism]], represented by such authors as [[Sam Harris (author)|Sam Harris]], [[Daniel Dennett]], [[Richard Dawkins]], [[Victor J. Stenger]], and [[Christopher Hitchens]].
 
Critics consider religion to be outdated, harmful to the individual (such as [[brainwashing]] of children, [[faith healing]], [[circumcision]]), harmful to society (such as [[religious war|holy war]]s, [[terrorism]], wasteful distribution of resources), to impede the progress of [[science]], and to encourage immoral acts (such as blood sacrifice, [[homophobia|discrimination against homosexuals]] [[misogyny|and women]]).
-->
==Шулай ук карагыз==
{{Portal box|Дин|Рухият}}
{{Main|Дин төзелешен аңлатуы}}
{{div col|2}}
* [[Ышаныч]]
* [[Дин икътисады]]
* [[Иман]]
* [[Итагатьлелек]]
* [[Life stance]]
* [[Кешеләрнең дини популяцияләре исемлеге]]
* [[Дини текстлар исемлеге]]
* [[Әхлак һәм дин]]
* [[Теист булмаган диннәр]]
* [[Дин фәлсәфәсе]]
* [[Дога]]
* [[Дини хезмәткәр]]
* [[Дин һәм бизнес]]
* [[Дин һәм шатлык]]
* [[Дин һәм тынычлыкны үстерү]]
* [[Илләр буенча диннәр таралышы]]
* [[Динне алмаштыру]]
* [[Дин социологиясе]]
* [[Гыйбадәтханә]]
* [[Теократия]]
* [[Диннең вакыт сызыгы]]
* [[Дин һәм байлык]]
* [[Дөньяга караш]]
{{div col end}}
 
==Искәрмәләр==
{{Reflist|2}}
 
===Әдәбият===
<div class="references-small">
*Saint Augustine; ''The Confessions of Saint Augustine'' (John K. Ryan translator); Image (1960), ISBN 0-385-02955-1.
*Descartes, René; ''Meditations on First Philosophy''; Bobbs-Merril (1960), ISBN 0-672-60191-5.
*Barzilai, Gad; ''Law and Religion''; The International Library of Essays in Law and Society; Ashgate (2007),ISBN 978-0-7546-2494-3
*Durant, Will (& Ariel (uncredited)); ''Our Oriental Heritage''; MJF Books (1997), ISBN 1-56731-012-5.
*Durant, Will (& Ariel (uncredited)); ''Caesar and Christ''; MJF Books (1994), ISBN 1-56731-014-1
*Durant, Will (& Ariel (uncredited)); ''The Age of Faith''; Simon & Schuster (1980), ISBN 0-671-01200-2.
*[[Marija Gimbutas]] 1989. ''The Language of the Goddess''. Thames and Hudson New York
*Gonick, Larry; ''The Cartoon History of the Universe''; Doubleday, vol. 1 (1978) ISBN 0-385-26520-4, vol. II (1994) ISBN#0-385-42093-5, W. W. Norton, vol. III (2002) ISBN 0-393-05184-6.
*Haisch, Bernard ''The God Theory: Universes, Zero-point Fields, and What's Behind It All'' -- discussion of science vs. religion ([http://www.thegodtheory.com/preface.html Preface]{{dead link|date=January 2011}}), Red Wheel/Weiser, 2006, ISBN 1-57863-374-5
*Lao Tzu; ''Tao Te Ching'' (Victor H. Mair translator); Bantam (1998).
*Marx, Karl; "Introduction to A Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right", ''Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher'', (1844).
*Saler, Benson; "Conceptualizing Religion: Immanent Anthropologists, Transcendent Natives, and Unbounded Categories" (1990), ISBN 1-57181-219-9
*''The Holy Bible'', King James Version; New American Library (1974).
*''The Koran''; Penguin (2000), ISBN 0-14-044558-7.
*''The Origin of Live & Death'', African Creation Myths; Heinemann (1966).
*''Poems of Heaven and Hell from Ancient Mesopotamia''; Penguin (1971).
*''The World Almanac'' (annual), World Almanac Books, ISBN 0-88687-964-7.
*''[http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/160/11/1965 The Serotonin System and Spiritual Experiences]'' - American Journal of Psychiatry 160:1965-1969, November 2003.
*United States Constitution
*''Selected Work'' Marcus Tullius Cicero
*''The World Almanac'' (for numbers of adherents of various religions), 2005
*Religion [First Edition]. Winston King. ''Encyclopedia of Religion''. Ed. Lindsay Jones. Vol. 11. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. p7692-7701.
*''World Religions and Social Evolution of the Old World Oikumene Civilizations: A Cross-cultural Perspective'' by [[Andrey Korotayev]], Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2004, ISBN 0-7734-6310-0.
*{{Cite book| last = Brodd | first = Jefferey | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = World Religions | publisher = Saint Mary's Press | year = 2003 | location = Winona, MN | pages = | url = | doi = | isbn = 978-0-88489-725-5}}
 
'''On religion definition''':
*The first major study: [[Émile Durkheim|Durkheim, Emile]] (1976) ''The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life.'' London: George Allen & Unwin (in French 1912, English translation 1915).
* [[Wilfred Cantwell Smith]] ''The Meaning and End of Religion'' (1962) notes that the concept of religion as an ideological community and system of doctrines, developed in the 15th and 16th centuries CE.
*A distillation of the Western folk category of religion: [[Clifford Geertz|Geertz, Clifford]]. 1993 [1966]. ''[http://web.archive.org/web/20070925190332/http://resources.theology.ox.ac.uk/library/data/pdf/THD0111.pdf Religion as a cultural system]''. pp.&nbsp;87–125 in Clifford Geertz, ''[http://books.google.com/books?hl=it&lr=&id=BZ1BmKEHti0C The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays]''. London: Fontana Press.
*An [[operational definition]]: [[Anthony F. C. Wallace|Wallace, Anthony F. C.]] 1966. ''Religion: An Anthropological View''. New York: Random House. (p.&nbsp;62-66)
*A recent overview: ''[http://www.anpere.net/2007/2.pdf A Scientific Definition of Religion]''. By Ph.D. James W. Dow.
* Origines de l'homme - De la matière à la conscience, ''Yves Coppens'', De Vive Voix, Paris, 2010
* La preistoria dell’uomo, ''Yves Coppens'', Jaka Book, Milano, 2011
 
'''Studies of religion in particular geographical areas''':
* A. Khanbaghi. ''The Fire, the Star and the Cross: Minority Religions in Medieval and Early Modern Iran'' (IB Tauris; 2006) 268 pages. Social, political and cultural history of religious minorities in Iran, c. 226-1722 AD.
</div>
 
==Сылтамалар==
*[http://ucblibraries.colorado.edu/govpubs/us/religion.htm Religion Statistics] from ''UCB Libraries GovPubs''
*{{dmoz|Society/Religion_and_Spirituality}}
*[http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents] by Adherents.com August 2005
*[http://www.iacsr.com/ IACSR - International Association for the Cognitive Science of Religion]
*[http://www.as.ua.edu/rel/studyingreligion.html Studying Religion] - Introduction to the methods and scholars of the academic study of religion
*[http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1843/critique-hpr/intro.htm#05 A Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right] - Marx's original reference to religion as the ''opium of the people''.
*[http://www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/hrj/iss16/gunn.shtml The Complexity of Religion and the Definition of “Religion” in International Law] Harvard Human Rights Journal article from the President and Fellows of Harvard College(2003)
*[http://www.religionfacts.com/big_religion_chart.htm The Big Religion Chart] detailed facts on major religions
 
{{rq|stub}}
73 791

правка