«Тоба (күл)» битенең юрамалары арасында аерма

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'''Тоба күле''' ({{lang-id|'''Danau Toba'''}}) - {{Coord|2.6845|98.8756|region:ID_type:waterbody_scale:500000|display=inline,title}} урнашкан [[күл]] һәм [[супер-янартау]]. Күл [[озынлык|озынлыгы]] - 100 [[километр]], [[киңлек|киңлеге]] - 30 километр. Индонезияның[[Индонезия]]ның [[Суматра]] [[утрау|утравының]] [[төньяк]] өлешенең уртасында[[урта]]сында урнашкан күл {{Coord|2.88|N|98.52|E|}} белән {{Coord|2.35|N|99.1|E|}} нокталары[[нокта]]лары арасында сузыла. Индонезияның иң эре күле һәм дөньяның иң эре [[янартау күле]] булуы мәгълүм.<ref name="WorldLakes">[http://www.worldlakes.org/lakedetails.asp?lakeid=8367 Worldlakes.org]</ref>
Lake Toba is the site of a supervolcanic eruption that occurred an estimated 69,000 to 77,000 years ago,<ref>[http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0601-09= Global Volcanism Program page on Toba]</ref><ref name=chesner1991 /><ref>{{cite journal|last=Ninkovich|first=D.|coauthors=N.J. Shackleton, A.A. Abdel-Monem, J.D. Obradovich, G. Izett|date=7 December 1978|title=K−Ar age of the late Pleistocene eruption of Toba, north Sumatra|journal=Nature|publisher=Nature Publishing Group|issue=276|pages=574–577 |doi=10.1038/276574a0|accessdate=5 March 2010|volume=276}}</ref> a massive, climate-changing event. It is estimated to have been a [[Volcanic Explosivity Index|VEI]] 8 eruption. It is the largest known explosive eruption anywhere on [[Earth]] in the last 25 million years. According to the [[Toba catastrophe theory]], it had global consequences, killing most humans then alive and creating a [[population bottleneck]] in Central Eastern Africa and India that affected the genetic inheritance of all humans today.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2975862.stm|title=When humans faced extinction|publisher=BBC|date=2003-06-09|accessdate=2007-01-05}}</ref> However, this hypothesis is not widely accepted due to lack of evidence for any other animal decline or extinction, even in environmentally sensitive species.<ref>Gathorne-Hardy, F. J., and Harcourt-Smith, W. E. H., [http://ice2.uab.cat/argo/Argo_actualitzacio/argo_butlleti/ccee/geologia/arxius/4Gathorne-Hardy.pdf "The super-eruption of Toba, did it cause a human bottleneck?"], Journal of Human Evolution 45 (2003) 227–230.</ref> However, it has been accepted that the eruption of Toba led to a [[volcanic winter]] with a worldwide decline in temperatures between {{Convert|3|to|5|C-change|F-change}}, and up to {{Convert|15|C-change|F-change}} in higher latitudes.
{{Main|Тоба һәлакәте}}
[[File:Lake Toba location.png|thumb|left|Тоба күленең урнашу урыны харитада[[харита]]да кызыл ноктасы белән күрсәтелгән.]]
<!--The '''Toba eruption''' (the '''Toba event''') occurred at what is now Lake Toba about 67,500 to 75,500 years ago.<ref>{{cite journal | last = Zielinski | first = G. A. | coauthors = P.A. Mayewski, L.D. Meeker, S. Whitlow, M. Twickler and K. Taylor | year = 1996 | title = Potential Atmospheric impact of the Toba mega-eruption ~71'000 years ago | journal = Geophysical Research Letters | volume = 23 | issue = 8 | pages = 837–840 | publisher = American Geophysical Union | location = United States | doi = 10.1029/96GL00706 | bibcode=1996GeoRL..23..837Z}}</ref> The Toba eruption was the latest of a series of at least three [[caldera]]-forming eruptions which have occurred at the volcano, with earlier calderas having formed around 700,000 and 840,000 years ago.<ref name=OregonState/> The last eruption had an estimated VEI 8 (described as "mega-colossal"), making it possibly the largest explosive [[volcanic eruption]] within the last 25 million years.
On 12 September 2007, a [[September 2007 Sumatra earthquakes|magnitude 8.5 earthquake]] shook the ground in Sumatra and was felt in the Indonesian capital, [[Jakarta]]. The epicenter for this earthquake was not as close as the previous two earthquakes, but it was in the same vicinity.-->
2010 елның 26 октябрь көне Индонезияның Пагай-селатан утравының 36 км көньяк-көнбатышта 3 м бөеклектә[[бөеклек]]тә [[цунами]] тудырган 7,7 дәрәҗәсендә җиртетрәве урын алды.
2012 елның 10 гыйнварында регионда 7,3 бөеклеге җиртетрәве[[җиртетрәү]] урын алды.
===Атылу мөмкинлеге===
[[Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment|GRACE]] иярчене[[иярчен]]е күрсәткәненчә, Суматра утравы тирәсендәге 2004 елгы җиртетрәве<ref name="utexas-Gross">{{Cite web
| last = Gross | first = Richard
| title = The Gravitational Signature of the December 26, 2004 Sumatran Earthquake
| url = http://www.csr.utexas.edu/grace/GSTM/abstracts/abstract_submissions/gross_1126218371.html
| date = October 2005 | accessdate = December 2011
}}</ref> [[Җир шарыныңшары]]ның формасын[[форма]]сын үзгәртте<ref>{{Cite news
| last1 = Kuo | first1 = Chung-Yen
| last2 = Ji | first2 = Chen
=== Күренеш ===
[[Image:ParapatPano.jpg|top|1030px|thumb|left|Тоба күлендәге [[Самосир утравы]]ннан [[Парапат]]ның [[панорама]] күренеше[[күренеш]]е]]
File:Toba Lake Parapat Arrival.JPG |Парапаттан[[Парапат]]тан Тоба күле күренеше
File:Lake Toba Driver Ambarita.JPG |Амбаритадан[[Амбарита]]дан Тоба күле күренеше
File:Toba Lake Villages Samosir.JPG |[[Самосир]] Тоба күле авыллары
File:Parapat-harbor 09N9196.jpg|Парапат лиманы[[лиман]]ы
File:Batak-village 09N9400-01.jpg|[[Батак]] авылы[[авыл]]ы
File:Simanindo 09N9454-55.jpg|Күлнең Симаниндодан күренеше
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