«Тоба (күл)» битенең юрамалары арасында аерма

44 байта убрано ,  8 лет назад
к
төзәтмә аңлатмасы юк
к
The [[fauna]] includes several species of [[zooplankton]] and [[benthos|benthic]] animals. Since the lake is [[oligotrophic]] (nutrient-poor), the native fish fauna is relatively scarce, and the only [[Endemism|endemic]]s are ''[[Rasbora tobana]]'' (strictly speaking near-endemic, since also found in some tributary rivers that run into the lake)<ref>Lumbantobing, D. N. (2010). ''Four New Species of the Rasbora trifasciata-Group (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Northwestern Sumatra, Indonesia.'' Copeia 4: 644-670</ref> and ''[[Neolissochilus thienemanni]]'', locally known as the Batak fish.<ref name=Saragih>Saragih, B., and S. Sunito (2001). ''Lake Toba: Need for an integrated management system.'' Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management 6(3): 247–251.</ref> The latter species is threatened by deforestation (causing [[siltation]]), pollution, changes in water level and the numerous fish species that have been [[Introduced species|introduced]] to the lake.<ref name=Saragih/> Other native fishes include species such as ''[[Aplocheilus panchax]]'', ''[[Nemacheilus pfeifferae]]'', ''[[Homaloptera gymnogaster]]'', ''[[Channa gachua]]'', ''[[Channa striata]]'', ''[[Clarias batrachus]]'', ''[[Barbonymus gonionotus]]'', ''[[Barbonymus schwanenfeldii]]'', ''[[Danio albolineatus]]'', ''[[Osteochilus vittatus]]'', ''[[Puntius binotatus]]'', ''[[Rasbora jacobsoni]]'', ''[[Tor tambra]]'', ''[[Betta imbellis]]'', ''[[Betta taeniata]]'' and ''[[Monopterus albus]]''.<ref name=fishbase>[[FishBase]] (2012). ''[http://fishbase.org/trophiceco/FishEcoList.php?ve_code=547 Species in Toba.]'' Accessed 25 January 2012</ref> Among the many introduced species are ''[[Anabas testudineus]]'', ''[[Oreochromis mossambicus]]'', ''[[Oreochromis niloticus]]'', ''[[Ctenopharyngodon idella]]'', ''[[Cyprinus carpio]]'', ''[[Osphronemus goramy]]'', ''[[Trichogaster pectoralis]]'', ''[[Trichopodus trichopterus]]'', ''[[Poecilia reticulata]]'' and ''[[Xiphophorus hellerii]]''.<ref name=fishbase/>
-->
=== Күренеш ===
{{Панорама
[[Image:ParapatPano.jpg|top|1030px|thumb|left|caption = Тоба күлендәге [[Самосир утравы]]ннан [[Парапат]]ның панорама күренеше.]]
|image = File:ParapatPano.jpg
|fullwidth = 6196
|fullheight = 1443
|height = 350
|caption = Тоба күлендәге [[Самосир утравы]]ннан [[Парапат]]ның панорама күренеше.
}}
 
==Галерея==
77 079

правок