1 234 896
к (clean up using AWB)
Some also claim that comparisons to the ancient [[Sumerian language]] (which some label as [[Ural-Altaic languages|Ural-Altaic]]) to modern Turkic languages show common vocabulary. Based on these comparisons is then the claim that the Sumerians are the most ancient documented Turkic people, that they originated from east of the [[Caspian Sea]] but established a civilization in [[Mesopotamia]]. Others dismiss this as an expression of Pan-Turkist ideology, pointing out that most linguists consider Sumerian a [[language isolate]]. Further the classification of languages into an Ural-Altaic group is often criticised, due to perceived lack of evidence and perceived lack of obvious similarties between languages classified as such.
Some scholars will also consider the [[Huns]], whose origins go back to [[1200s BCE|1200 BCE]], as one of the earlier Turkic tribes.
Leaving these controversies aside, the precise date of the initial expansion from the early homeland remains unknown. The first state known as "Turk" giving its name to the many states and people afterwards, was that of the [[Gokturks]] (''gog'' = 'blue' or 'celestial') in the [[6th century]] AD.
Later Turkic peoples include the [[Karluks]] (mainly 8th century), [[Uighurs]], [[Kirghiz]], [[Oghuz Turks|Oghuz]] (or Ğuz) Turks, and [[Turkmen|Turkmens]]. As these peoples were founding states in the area between [[Mongolia]] and [[Transoxiana]], they came into contact with the Muslim people and gradually adopted [[Islam]]. However, there were also (and still are) Turkic people belonging to different religions, including [[Christianity|Christians]], [[Jews]] (see [[Khazars]]), [[Buddhists]], and [[Zoroastrian|Zoroastrians]].
Turkic soldiers in the army of the [[Abbasids|Abbasid]] [[Caliphate|caliphs]] emerged as ''de facto'' rulers of most of the Muslim Middle East (except [[Syria]] and [[Egypt]]), particularly after the 10th century. [[Oghuz]] and other tribes captured and dominated various countries under the leadership of the [[Seljuk Turks|Seljuk dynasty]] and eventually captured the territories of the Abbasid dynasty and the [[Byzantine Empire]].
Meanwhile, Kirghiz and Uighurs were struggling with each other and with the mighty Chinese Empire. Kirghiz people finally settled in the region that is now referred to as Kyrgyzstan. [[Tatar peoples|Tatar]] peoples conquered [[Volga Bulgars]] in what is today southern Russia following the westward sweep of the Mongols under [[Genghis Khan]] in the 13th century. Bulgars was named ''Tatars'' by Russians mistakenly. Native Tatars lives only in Asia, European Tatars are in fact Bulgars. (Bulgars came to Europe in 7-8th century). Everywhere, Turkic groups mixed to some extent with other local populations.
As the Seljuks declined after the Mongol invasion, the [[Ottoman Empire]] emerged as a new important Turkic state which came to dominate not only the Middle East, but also southeastern Europe and parts of southwestern Russia and northern Africa. Meanwhile, other Turkic groups founded dynasties in Iran (like the [[Safavids]]) and northern [[India]] (the [[Mughal Empire]]).
== Yäşäw cirläre wä milli büleneş ==
Bügenge köndä Törki xalıqlarnıñ iñ zur törkeme [[Törkiä]]dä yäşi. Başqa olı Törki xalıqlar [[Azärbaycan]], [[Kipır]], [[İdel-Ural]], [[İran]], [[Qazaqstan]], [[Qırğızstan]], [[Törekmänstan]], wä [[Üzbäkstan]] cirlärendä yäşilär. Bu [[Törki däwlätlär
Törki xalıqlar öyränü buyınça tanılğan ğälim [[Wilhelm Radloff]] []. yılda bolay yaza: ''Tönyaq Afrikadan başlap Awrupılı Törkiägä tikle, Könyaq-Çığış Räsäydän başlap Keçe Asía ilä Turan, annarı Seber aşa Gobi çülenä tikle cirlärendä Törki telendä söyläşä torğan ıruğlar yäşilär. Bu dönyanıñ şul tikle kiñ cäyelgän alanda qullanıla torğan Törki tele belän çağıştırmalı başqa tel yuq'' (Çığanaq: ''Törki Mädäniät Näzäräte'').
* [http://turkicworld.org/ «Türkic World»] – İnclizçä