«Тоба (күл)» битенең юрамалары арасында аерма

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'''Тоба күле''' ({{lang-id|'''Danau Toba'''}}) - {{Coord|2.6845|98.8756|region:ID_type:waterbody_scale:500000|display=inline,title}} урнашкан [[күл]] һәм [[супер-[[янартау]]. Күл [[озынлык|озынлыгы]] - 100 [[километр]], [[киңлек|киңлеге]] - 30 километр. [[Индонезия]]ның [[Суматра]] [[утрау|утравының]] [[төньяк]] өлешенең [[урта]]сында урнашкан күл {{Coord|2.88|N|98.52|E|}} белән {{Coord|2.35|N|99.1|E|}} [[нокта]]лары арасында сузыла. Индонезияның иң эре күле һәм дөньяның иң эре [[янартау күле]] булуы мәгълүм.<ref name="WorldLakes">[http://www.worldlakes.org/lakedetails.asp?lakeid=8367 Worldlakes.org]</ref>
Lake Toba is the site of a supervolcanic eruption that occurred an estimated 69,000 to 77,000 years ago,<ref>[http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0601-09= Global Volcanism Program page on Toba]</ref><ref name=chesner1991 /><ref>{{cite journal|last=Ninkovich|first=D.|coauthors=N.J. Shackleton, A.A. Abdel-Monem, J.D. Obradovich, G. Izett|date=7 December 1978|title=K−Ar age of the late Pleistocene eruption of Toba, north Sumatra|journal=Nature|publisher=Nature Publishing Group|issue=276|pages=574–577 |doi=10.1038/276574a0|accessdate=5 March 2010|volume=276}}</ref> a massive, climate-changing event. It is estimated to have been a [[Volcanic Explosivity Index|VEI]] 8 eruption. It is the largest known explosive eruption anywhere on [[Earth]] in the last 25 million years. According to the [[Toba catastrophe theory]], it had global consequences, killing most humans then alive and creating a [[population bottleneck]] in Central Eastern Africa and India that affected the genetic inheritance of all humans today.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2975862.stm|title=When humans faced extinction|publisher=BBC|date=2003-06-09|accessdate=2007-01-05}}</ref> However, this hypothesis is not widely accepted due to lack of evidence for any other animal decline or extinction, even in environmentally sensitive species.<ref>Gathorne-Hardy, F. J., and Harcourt-Smith, W. E. H., [http://ice2.uab.cat/argo/Argo_actualitzacio/argo_butlleti/ccee/geologia/arxius/4Gathorne-Hardy.pdf "The super-eruption of Toba, did it cause a human bottleneck?"], Journal of Human Evolution 45 (2003) 227–230.</ref> However, it has been accepted that the eruption of Toba led to a [[volcanic winter]] with a worldwide decline in temperatures between {{Convert|3|to|5|C-change|F-change}}, and up to {{Convert|15|C-change|F-change}} in higher latitudes.
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